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Glyphosate’s Suppression of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes and Amino Acid Biosynthesis by the Gut Microbiome: Pathways to Modern Diseases

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      Clinical epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease: Incidence, prevalence, and environmental influences.

      Although the incidence and prevalence of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are beginning to stabilize in high-incidence areas such as northern Europe and North America, they continue to rise in low-incidence areas such as southern Europe, Asia, and much of the developing world. As many as 1.4 million persons in the United States and 2.2 million persons in Europe suffer from these diseases. Previously noted racial and ethnic differences seem to be narrowing. Differences in incidence across age, time, and geographic region suggest that environmental factors significantly modify the expression of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. The strongest environmental factors identified are cigarette smoking and appendectomy. Whether other factors such as diet, oral contraceptives, perinatal/childhood infections, or atypical mycobacterial infections play a role in expression of inflammatory bowel disease remains unclear. Additional epidemiologic studies to define better the burden of illness, explore the mechanism of association with environmental factors, and identify new risk factors are needed.
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        The extreme male brain theory of autism.

        The key mental domains in which sex differences have traditionally been studied are verbal and spatial abilities. In this article I suggest that two neglected dimensions for understanding human sex differences are 'empathising' and 'systemising'. The male brain is a defined psychometrically as those individuals in whom systemising is significantly better than empathising, and the female brain is defined as the opposite cognitive profile. Using these definitions, autism can be considered as an extreme of the normal male profile. There is increasing psychological evidence for the extreme male brain theory of autism.
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          Breast density and parenchymal patterns as markers of breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

          Mammographic features are associated with breast cancer risk, but estimates of the strength of the association vary markedly between studies, and it is uncertain whether the association is modified by other risk factors. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of publications on mammographic patterns in relation to breast cancer risk. Random effects models were used to combine study-specific relative risks. Aggregate data for > 14,000 cases and 226,000 noncases from 42 studies were included. Associations were consistent in studies conducted in the general population but were highly heterogeneous in symptomatic populations. They were much stronger for percentage density than for Wolfe grade or Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System classification and were 20% to 30% stronger in studies of incident than of prevalent cancer. No differences were observed by age/menopausal status at mammography or by ethnicity. For percentage density measured using prediagnostic mammograms, combined relative risks of incident breast cancer in the general population were 1.79 (95% confidence interval, 1.48-2.16), 2.11 (1.70-2.63), 2.92 (2.49-3.42), and 4.64 (3.64-5.91) for categories 5% to 24%, 25% to 49%, 50% to 74%, and > or = 75% relative to < 5%. This association remained strong after excluding cancers diagnosed in the first-year postmammography. This review explains some of the heterogeneity in associations of breast density with breast cancer risk and shows that, in well-conducted studies, this is one of the strongest risk factors for breast cancer. It also refutes the suggestion that the association is an artifact of masking bias or that it is only present in a restricted age range.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            ENTRFG
            Entropy
            Entropy
            MDPI AG
            1099-4300
            December 2013
            April 18 2013
            : 15
            : 12
            : 1416-1463
            10.3390/e15041416
            © 2013

            https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

            Product
            Self URI (article page): http://www.mdpi.com/1099-4300/15/4/1416

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