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      Effect of Preoperative Gabapentin With a Concomitant Adductor Canal Block on Pain and Opioid Usage After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

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          Abstract

          Background:

          An adductor canal block (ACB) and preoperative oral gabapentin have each been shown to decrease postoperative pain scores and opioid usage in patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction.

          Purpose/Hypothesis:

          This study evaluated the efficacy of preoperative gabapentin on postoperative analgesia in patients who received an ACB. We hypothesized that patients undergoing ACL reconstruction with an ACB who utilized a single dose of preoperative oral gabapentin would have decreased pain and opioid consumption in the 24 to 72 hours after surgery compared with patients who did not utilize gabapentin.

          Study Design:

          Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.

          Methods:

          Between January and October 2016, patients at a single institution who underwent ACL reconstruction and received an ACB were identified. Patients who underwent surgery before May 2016 were placed in the control group, and patients seen after May 2016 received a preoperative dose of gabapentin and were placed in the gabapentin group. All patients completed a pain log via a smartphone application to record pain scores and opioid usage after surgery.

          Results:

          A total of 74 patients were identified: 41 in the gabapentin group and 33 in the control group. There were no significant differences between groups in demographics and operative characteristics. There were no differences in pain scores on postoperative day 1 (gabapentin vs control: 5.53 vs 5.56; P = .95), day 2 (4.58 vs 4.83; P = .59), or day 3 (4.15 vs 3.87; P = .59). The mean opioid consumption in oral morphine equivalents was not different on postoperative day 1 (gabapentin vs control: 47.2 vs 48.1; P = .90), day 2 (29.9 vs 33.5; P = .60), or day 3 (17.4 vs 18.7; P = .80).

          Conclusion:

          Preoperative gabapentin did not reduce pain scores or opioid usage in patients who received an ACB and underwent ACL reconstruction in this retrospective cohort study.

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          Most cited references 16

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          Societal costs of prescription opioid abuse, dependence, and misuse in the United States.

          The objective of this study was to estimate the societal costs of prescription opioid abuse, dependence, and misuse in the United States. Costs were grouped into three categories: health care, workplace, and criminal justice. Costs were estimated by 1) quantity method, which multiplies the number of opioid abuse patients by cost per opioid abuse patient; and 2) apportionment method, which begins with overall costs of drug abuse per component and apportions the share associated with prescription opioid abuse based on relative prevalence of prescription opioid to overall drug abuse. Excess health care costs per patient were based on claims data analysis of privately insured and Medicaid beneficiaries. Other data/information were derived from publicly available survey and other secondary sources. Total US societal costs of prescription opioid abuse were estimated at $55.7 billion in 2007 (USD in 2009). Workplace costs accounted for $25.6 billion (46%), health care costs accounted for $25.0 billion (45%), and criminal justice costs accounted for $5.1 billion (9%). Workplace costs were driven by lost earnings from premature death ($11.2 billion) and reduced compensation/lost employment ($7.9 billion). Health care costs consisted primarily of excess medical and prescription costs ($23.7 billion). Criminal justice costs were largely comprised of correctional facility ($2.3 billion) and police costs ($1.5 billion).   The costs of prescription opioid abuse represent a substantial and growing economic burden for the society. The increasing prevalence of abuse suggests an even greater societal burden in the future. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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            Femoral nerve block improves analgesia outcomes after total knee arthroplasty: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

            Femoral nerve blockade (FNB) is a common method of analgesia for postoperative pain control after total knee arthroplasty. We conducted a systematic review to compare the analgesia outcomes in randomized controlled trials that compared FNB (with and without sciatic nerve block) with epidural and patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). We identified 23 randomized controlled trials that compared FNB with PCA or epidural analgesia. These studies included 1,016 patients, 665 with FNB, 161 with epidural, and 190 with PCA alone. All 10 studies of single-shot FNB (SSFNB) used concurrent PCA opioids. SSFNB was found to reduce PCA morphine consumption at 24 h (-19.9 mg, 95% credible interval [CrI]: -35.2 to -4.6) and 48 h (-38.0 mg, 95% CrI: -56.0 to -19.7), pain scores with activity (but not at rest) at 24 and 48 h (-1.8 visual analog pain scale, 95% CrI: -3.3 to -0.02 at 24 h; -1.5 visual analog pain scale, 95% CrI: -2.9 to -0.02 at 48 h) and reduce the incidence of nausea (0.37 odds ratio, 95% CrI: 0.1 to 0.9) compared with PCA alone. SSFNB had similar morphine consumption and pain scores compared with SSFNB plus sciatic nerve block, and SSFNB plus continuous FNB. SSFNB or continuous FNB (plus PCA) was found to be superior to PCA alone for postoperative analgesia for patients having total knee arthroplasty. The impact of adding a sciatic block or continuous FNB to a SSFNB needs to be studied further.
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              Ropivacaine: A review of its pharmacology and clinical use

              Ropivacaine is a long-acting amide local anaesthetic agent and first produced as a pure enantiomer. It produces effects similar to other local anaesthetics via reversible inhibition of sodium ion influx in nerve fibres. Ropivacaine is less lipophilic than bupivacaine and is less likely to penetrate large myelinated motor fibres, resulting in a relatively reduced motor blockade. Thus, ropivacaine has a greater degree of motor sensory differentiation, which could be useful when motor blockade is undesirable. The reduced lipophilicity is also associated with decreased potential for central nervous system toxicity and cardiotoxicity. The drug displays linear and dose proportional pharmacokinetics (up to 80 mg administered intravenously). It is metabolised extensively in the liver and excreted in urine. The present article details the clinical applications of ropivacaine and its current place as a local anaesthetic in the group.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Orthop J Sports Med
                Orthop J Sports Med
                OJS
                spojs
                Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
                SAGE Publications (Sage CA: Los Angeles, CA )
                2325-9671
                05 March 2019
                March 2019
                : 7
                : 3
                Affiliations
                []Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
                []University of Florida Health, Jacksonville, Florida, USA.
                [§ ]Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, New York, USA.
                Investigation performed at Emory Orthopaedics and Spine Center, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
                Author notes
                [* ]Briggs Ahearn, MD, Emory University, 59 Executive Park South, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA (email: bahearn@ 123456emory.edu ).
                Article
                10.1177_2325967119828357
                10.1177/2325967119828357
                6402063
                30859108
                © The Author(s) 2019

                This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 License ( http://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/) which permits non-commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work as published without adaptation or alteration, without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access pages ( https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/open-access-at-sage).

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