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      Subacute toxicity of mesoporous silica nanoparticles to the intestinal tract and the underlying mechanism

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      Journal of Hazardous Materials

      Elsevier BV

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          Glucose-Independent Glutamine Metabolism via TCA Cycling for Proliferation and Survival in B Cells

          Because MYC plays a causal role in many human cancers, including those with hypoxic and nutrient-poor tumor microenvironments, we have determined the metabolic responses of a MYC-inducible human Burkitt lymphoma model P493 cell line to aerobic and hypoxic conditions, and to glucose deprivation, using stable isotope-resolved metabolomics. Using [U-(13)C]-glucose as the tracer, both glucose consumption and lactate production were increased by MYC expression and hypoxia. Using [U-(13)C,(15)N]-glutamine as the tracer, glutamine import and metabolism through the TCA cycle persisted under hypoxia, and glutamine contributed significantly to citrate carbons. Under glucose deprivation, glutamine-derived fumarate, malate, and citrate were significantly increased. Their (13)C-labeling patterns demonstrate an alternative energy-generating glutaminolysis pathway involving a glucose-independent TCA cycle. The essential role of glutamine metabolism in cell survival and proliferation under hypoxia and glucose deficiency makes them susceptible to the glutaminase inhibitor BPTES and hence could be targeted for cancer therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Comparison of the abilities of ambient and manufactured nanoparticles to induce cellular toxicity according to an oxidative stress paradigm.

            Nanomaterial properties differ from those bulk materials of the same composition, allowing them to execute novel activities. A possible downside of these capabilities is harmful interactions with biological systems, with the potential to generate toxicity. An approach to assess the safety of nanomaterials is urgently required. We compared the cellular effects of ambient ultrafine particles with manufactured titanium dioxide (TiO2), carbon black, fullerol, and polystyrene (PS) nanoparticles (NPs). The study was conducted in a phagocytic cell line (RAW 264.7) that is representative of a lung target for NPs. Physicochemical characterization of the NPs showed a dramatic change in their state of aggregation, dispersibility, and charge during transfer from a buffered aqueous solution to cell culture medium. Particles differed with respect to cellular uptake, subcellular localization, and ability to catalyze the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under biotic and abiotic conditions. Spontaneous ROS production was compared by using an ROS quencher (furfuryl alcohol) as well as an NADPH peroxidase bioelectrode platform. Among the particles tested, ambient ultrafine particles (UFPs) and cationic PS nanospheres were capable of inducing cellular ROS production, GSH depletion, and toxic oxidative stress. This toxicity involves mitochondrial injury through increased calcium uptake and structural organellar damage. Although active under abiotic conditions, TiO2 and fullerol did not induce toxic oxidative stress. While increased TNF-alpha production could be seen to accompany UFP-induced oxidant injury, cationic PS nanospheres induced mitochondrial damage and cell death without inflammation. In summary, we demonstrate that ROS generation and oxidative stress are a valid test paradigm to compare NP toxicity. Although not all materials have electronic configurations or surface properties to allow spontaneous ROS generation, particle interactions with cellular components are capable of generating oxidative stress.
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              The NLRP3 inflammasome: a sensor for metabolic danger?

              Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) are all implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Here we review mechanisms directing IL-1beta production and its pathogenic role in islet dysfunction during chronic hyperglycemia. In doing so, we integrate previously disparate disease-driving mechanisms for IL-1beta, ROS, and TXNIP in T2DM into one unifying model in which the NLRP3 inflammasome plays a central role. The NLRP3 inflammasome also drives IL-1beta maturation and secretion in another disease of metabolic dysregulation, gout. Thus, we propose that the NLRP3 inflammasome contributes to the pathogenesis of T2DM and gout by functioning as a sensor for metabolic stress.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Hazardous Materials
                Journal of Hazardous Materials
                Elsevier BV
                03043894
                May 2021
                May 2021
                : 409
                : 124502
                Article
                10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.124502
                © 2021

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