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      Long-Term Safety of Guselkumab in Patients with Psoriatic Disease: An Integrated Analysis of Eleven Phase II/III Clinical Studies in Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis

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          Abstract

          Introduction

          The benefit/risk profiles of biologics can be affected by comorbidities, certain demographic characteristics, and concomitant medications; therefore, it is important to evaluate the long-term safety profiles of biologics across broad patient populations. Guselkumab was well tolerated and efficacious across individual pivotal clinical studies in adults with moderate-to-severe psoriasis and/or active psoriatic arthritis (PsA).

          Objectives

          The objective of the current analysis was to evaluate guselkumab safety in a large population of patients with psoriatic disease by pooling adverse event (AE) data from 11 phase II/III studies (seven in psoriasis; four in PsA).

          Methods

          Guselkumab was generally administered as 100 mg subcutaneous injections at Week 0, Week 4, then every 8 weeks (Q8W) in psoriasis studies and at Week 0, Week 4, then every 4 weeks (Q4W) or Q8W in PsA studies. Safety data were summarized for the placebo-controlled period (Weeks 0–16 in psoriasis; Weeks 0–24 in PsA) and through the end of the reporting period (up to 5 years in psoriasis; up to 2 years in PsA). Using the integrated data, incidence rates of key AEs were determined post hoc, adjusted for duration of follow-up, and reported per 100 patient-years (PYs). AE rates were also determined in subgroups of patients defined by sex, age, body mass index (BMI), and prior biologic use.

          Results

          During the placebo-controlled period, 1061 patients received placebo (395 PYs) and 2257 received guselkumab (856 PYs). Through the end of the reporting period, 4399 guselkumab-treated patients contributed 10,787 PYs of follow-up. During the placebo-controlled period, in the guselkumab and placebo groups, respectively, rates of AEs were 281 versus 272/100 PYs, and infections were 76.0 versus 72.2/100 PYs. Rates of serious AEs (5.6 vs. 7.8/100 PYs), AEs leading to discontinuation (4.9 vs. 6.6/100 PYs), serious infections (1.0 vs. 2.3/100 PYs), malignancy (0.59 vs. 0.25 patients/100 PYs), and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE; 0.35 vs. 0.25/100 PYs) were low and comparable between guselkumab and placebo. Among guselkumab-treated patients, safety event rates through the end of the reporting period were numerically lower than or comparable with rates observed during the placebo-controlled period: AEs, 164/100 PYs; infections, 61.2/100 PYs; serious AEs, 5.4/100 PYs; AEs leading to discontinuation, 1.8/100 PYs; serious infections, 1.0/100 PYs; malignancy, 0.6/100 PYs; and MACE, 0.3/100 PYs. No AEs of Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, or active tuberculosis were reported among guselkumab-treated patients. In the psoriasis studies, no opportunistic infections were reported among guselkumab-treated patients. Three AEs of opportunistic infections were reported in guselkumab-treated patients with PsA (0.14/100 PYs; all after Week 52 in DISCOVER-2). AE rates were largely consistent across subgroups of guselkumab-treated patients defined by sex, age, BMI, and prior biologic use.

          Conclusions

          In this analysis of 4399 guselkumab-treated patients with psoriatic disease followed for 10,787 PYs, guselkumab had a favorable AE profile. AE rates were similar between guselkumab- and placebo-treated patients and were consistent throughout long-term guselkumab treatment and across broad subgroups of patients with psoriatic disease.

          Clinical Trials Registrations

          Clinicaltrials.gov identifiers: NCT01483599, NCT02207231, NCT02207244, NCT02203032, NCT02905331, NCT03090100, NCT02325219, NCT02319759, NCT03162796, NCT03158285, and NCT03796858.

          Graphical Abstract

          Supplementary Information

          The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s40264-023-01361-w.

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          Most cited references83

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          Classification criteria for psoriatic arthritis: development of new criteria from a large international study.

          To compare the accuracy of existing classification criteria for the diagnosis of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and to construct new criteria from observed data. Data were collected prospectively from consecutive clinic attendees with PsA and other inflammatory arthropathies. Subjects were classified by each of 7 criteria. Sensitivity and specificity were compared using conditional logistic regression analysis. Latent class analysis was used to calculate criteria accuracy in order to confirm the validity of clinical diagnosis as the gold standard definition of "case"-ness. Classification and Regression Trees methodology and logistic regression were used to identify items for new criteria, which were then constructed using a receiver operating characteristic curve. Data were collected on 588 cases and 536 controls with rheumatoid arthritis (n = 384), ankylosing spondylitis (n = 72), undifferentiated arthritis (n = 38), connective tissue disorders (n = 14), and other diseases (n = 28). The specificity of each set of criteria was high. The sensitivity of the Vasey and Espinoza method (0.97) was similar to that of the method of McGonagle et al (0.98) and greater than that of the methods of Bennett (0.44), Moll and Wright (0.91), the European Spondylarthropathy Study Group (0.74), and Gladman et al (0.91). The CASPAR (ClASsification criteria for Psoriatic ARthritis) criteria consisted of established inflammatory articular disease with at least 3 points from the following features: current psoriasis (assigned a score of 2; all other features were assigned a score of 1), a history of psoriasis (unless current psoriasis was present), a family history of psoriasis (unless current psoriasis was present or there was a history of psoriasis), dactylitis, juxtaarticular new bone formation, rheumatoid factor negativity, and nail dystrophy. These criteria were more specific (0.987 versus 0.960) but less sensitive (0.914 versus 0.972) than those of Vasey and Espinoza. The CASPAR criteria are simple and highly specific but less sensitive than the Vasey and Espinoza criteria.
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            Cardiovascular and Cancer Risk with Tofacitinib in Rheumatoid Arthritis

            Increases in lipid levels and cancers with tofacitinib prompted a trial of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and cancers in patients with rheumatoid arthritis receiving tofacitinib as compared with a tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor.
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              Incidence Estimate of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer (Keratinocyte Carcinomas) in the U.S. Population, 2012.

              Understanding skin cancer incidence is critical for planning prevention and treatment strategies and allocating medical resources. However, owing to lack of national reporting and previously nonspecific diagnosis classification, accurate measurement of the US incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) has been difficult.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                brucestrober30@me.com
                Journal
                Drug Saf
                Drug Saf
                Drug Safety
                Springer International Publishing (Cham )
                0114-5916
                1179-1942
                31 October 2023
                31 October 2023
                2024
                : 47
                : 1
                : 39-57
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Yale University, ( https://ror.org/03v76x132) New Haven, CT USA
                [2 ]Central Connecticut Dermatology Research, Cromwell, CT USA
                [3 ]Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics, Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Sciences, University of Oxford, ( https://ror.org/052gg0110) Oxford, UK
                [4 ]Department of Dermatology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, ( https://ror.org/04a9tmd77) New York, NY USA
                [5 ]Division of Arthritis and Rheumatic Diseases, Oregon Health & Science University, ( https://ror.org/009avj582) Portland, OR USA
                [6 ]GRID grid.497530.c, ISNI 0000 0004 0389 4927, Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLC, ; Horsham, PA USA
                [7 ]GRID grid.497530.c, ISNI 0000 0004 0389 4927, Janssen Research & Development, LLC, ; San Diego, CA USA
                [8 ]GRID grid.497530.c, ISNI 0000 0004 0389 4927, Janssen Research & Development, LLC, ; Spring House, PA USA
                [9 ]Drexel University College of Medicine, ( https://ror.org/04bdffz58) Philadelphia, PA USA
                [10 ]GRID grid.497530.c, ISNI 0000 0004 0389 4927, Immunology, Janssen Research & Development, LLC, ; Titusville, NJ USA
                [11 ]Immunology Global Medical Affairs, Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson & Johnson, Horsham, PA USA
                [12 ]Institute and Comprehensive Center for Inflammatory Medicine, University of Luebeck, ( https://ror.org/00t3r8h32) Luebeck, Germany
                [13 ]Division of Rheumatology, Craig L. Dobbin Genetics Research Centre, Discipline of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, ( https://ror.org/04haebc03) St John’s, NL Canada
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8394-2057
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4756-663X
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4195-8616
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-0041-6984
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2059-7866
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8676-6706
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7957-838X
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6005-3938
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2706-7171
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4521-2029
                Article
                1361
                10.1007/s40264-023-01361-w
                10764399
                37906417
                e31cc9c0-d171-4d81-8912-49b12ea18914
                © The Author(s) 2023

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits any non-commercial use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.

                History
                : 4 October 2023
                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100005205, Janssen Research and Development;
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100008897, Janssen Pharmaceuticals;
                Categories
                Original Research Article
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                © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2024

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