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      CSF-1R inhibition alters macrophage polarization and blocks glioma progression

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          Abstract

          Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) comprises several molecular subtypes including proneural GBM. Most therapeutic approaches targeting glioma cells have failed. An alternative strategy is to target cells in the glioma microenvironment, such as tumor-associated macrophages and microglia (TAMs). Macrophages depend upon colony stimulating factor (CSF)-1 for differentiation and survival. A CSF-1R inhibitor was used to target TAMs in a mouse proneural GBM model, which dramatically increased survival, and regressed established tumors. CSF-1R blockade additionally slowed intracranial growth of patient-derived glioma xenografts. Surprisingly, TAMs were not depleted in treated mice. Instead, glioma-secreted factors including GM-CSF and IFN-γ facilitated TAM survival in the context of CSF-1R inhibition. Alternatively activated/ M2 macrophage markers decreased in surviving TAMs, consistent with impaired tumor-promoting functions. These gene signatures were associated with enhanced survival in proneural GBM patients. Our results identify TAMs as a promising therapeutic target for proneural gliomas, and establish the translational potential of CSF-1R inhibition for GBM.

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          Most cited references 73

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          Hallmarks of Cancer: The Next Generation

          The hallmarks of cancer comprise six biological capabilities acquired during the multistep development of human tumors. The hallmarks constitute an organizing principle for rationalizing the complexities of neoplastic disease. They include sustaining proliferative signaling, evading growth suppressors, resisting cell death, enabling replicative immortality, inducing angiogenesis, and activating invasion and metastasis. Underlying these hallmarks are genome instability, which generates the genetic diversity that expedites their acquisition, and inflammation, which fosters multiple hallmark functions. Conceptual progress in the last decade has added two emerging hallmarks of potential generality to this list-reprogramming of energy metabolism and evading immune destruction. In addition to cancer cells, tumors exhibit another dimension of complexity: they contain a repertoire of recruited, ostensibly normal cells that contribute to the acquisition of hallmark traits by creating the "tumor microenvironment." Recognition of the widespread applicability of these concepts will increasingly affect the development of new means to treat human cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Gene set enrichment analysis: A knowledge-based approach for interpreting genome-wide expression profiles

            Although genomewide RNA expression analysis has become a routine tool in biomedical research, extracting biological insight from such information remains a major challenge. Here, we describe a powerful analytical method called Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) for interpreting gene expression data. The method derives its power by focusing on gene sets, that is, groups of genes that share common biological function, chromosomal location, or regulation. We demonstrate how GSEA yields insights into several cancer-related data sets, including leukemia and lung cancer. Notably, where single-gene analysis finds little similarity between two independent studies of patient survival in lung cancer, GSEA reveals many biological pathways in common. The GSEA method is embodied in a freely available software package, together with an initial database of 1,325 biologically defined gene sets.
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              Radiotherapy plus concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide for glioblastoma.

              Glioblastoma, the most common primary brain tumor in adults, is usually rapidly fatal. The current standard of care for newly diagnosed glioblastoma is surgical resection to the extent feasible, followed by adjuvant radiotherapy. In this trial we compared radiotherapy alone with radiotherapy plus temozolomide, given concomitantly with and after radiotherapy, in terms of efficacy and safety. Patients with newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed glioblastoma were randomly assigned to receive radiotherapy alone (fractionated focal irradiation in daily fractions of 2 Gy given 5 days per week for 6 weeks, for a total of 60 Gy) or radiotherapy plus continuous daily temozolomide (75 mg per square meter of body-surface area per day, 7 days per week from the first to the last day of radiotherapy), followed by six cycles of adjuvant temozolomide (150 to 200 mg per square meter for 5 days during each 28-day cycle). The primary end point was overall survival. A total of 573 patients from 85 centers underwent randomization. The median age was 56 years, and 84 percent of patients had undergone debulking surgery. At a median follow-up of 28 months, the median survival was 14.6 months with radiotherapy plus temozolomide and 12.1 months with radiotherapy alone. The unadjusted hazard ratio for death in the radiotherapy-plus-temozolomide group was 0.63 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.52 to 0.75; P<0.001 by the log-rank test). The two-year survival rate was 26.5 percent with radiotherapy plus temozolomide and 10.4 percent with radiotherapy alone. Concomitant treatment with radiotherapy plus temozolomide resulted in grade 3 or 4 hematologic toxic effects in 7 percent of patients. The addition of temozolomide to radiotherapy for newly diagnosed glioblastoma resulted in a clinically meaningful and statistically significant survival benefit with minimal additional toxicity. Copyright 2005 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                9502015
                8791
                Nat Med
                Nat. Med.
                Nature medicine
                1078-8956
                1546-170X
                19 September 2013
                22 September 2013
                October 2013
                01 April 2014
                : 19
                : 10
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Cancer Biology and Genetics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065
                [2 ]Computational Biology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065
                [3 ]Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Programs, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065
                [4 ]Brain Tumor Center, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065
                [5 ]Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Emeryville, CA 94608, USA
                Author notes
                [# ]Correspondence should be addressed to: joycej@ 123456mskcc.org
                [*]

                Indicates shared authorship

                Article
                NIHMS516117
                10.1038/nm.3337
                3840724
                24056773

                Users may view, print, copy, download and text and data- mine the content in such documents, for the purposes of academic research, subject always to the full Conditions of use: http://www.nature.com/authors/editorial_policies/license.html#terms

                Funding
                Funded by: National Cancer Institute : NCI
                Award ID: U54 CA148967 || CA
                Funded by: National Cancer Institute : NCI
                Award ID: U54 CA126518 || CA
                Funded by: National Cancer Institute : NCI
                Award ID: U54 CA126518 || CA
                Categories
                Article

                Medicine

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