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      Challenges, Learning Curve, and Safety of Endoscopic Endonasal Surgery of Sellar-Suprasellar Lesions in a Community Hospital

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          Abstract

          Background and Objective

          Endoscopic endonasal surgery (EES) for the management of sellar, suprasellar, and anterior skull base lesions is gaining popularity. Our aim was to analyze and present the clinical outcomes of EES for the management of these lesions in a community hospital setting.

          Methods

          We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 56 patients with sellar, suprasellar, and anterior skull base lesions who underwent EES between 2010 and 2018.

          Results

          There was male predominance (53.6%) with a mean age of 54.9 ± 13.7 years. Lesions were 45 pituitary adenomas, 5 meningiomas, 3 metastatic, 1 craniopharyngioma, 1 Rathke cyst, and 1 mucocele. Gross total excision was achieved in 57.1%, subtotal excision occurred in 37.5%, and decompression and biopsy were achieved in 5.4% patients. Postoperative vision normalized or improved in 27 patients (86.1%) and was stable in 4 patients (13.9%). Recovery of a preexisting hormonal deficit occurred in 13 (23.2%) patients, and a new hormonal deficit occurred in 9 patients (16.1%). The mean hospital stay was 6.1 ± 4.9 days. Postoperative complications included cerebrospinal fluid leak in 8 patients (14.3%). Four patients (7.1%) had meningitis. Diabetes insipidus was present in 19 patients (33.9%), and postoperative intracranial hematoma requiring evacuation was necessary in 2 patients (3.6%). The mean follow-up duration was 47.5 ± 25.8 months. Lesion progression or recurrence requiring redo surgery occurred in 5 patients (8.9%). Regarding the learning curve, the postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak, meningitis, new hormonal deficits, and diabetes insipidus decreased in the second half of the patients.

          Conclusions

          EES provides an effective and safe surgical option with low morbidity and mortality for the treatment of sellar, suprasellar, and anterior skull base lesions in a community hospital setting.

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          Most cited references 56

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          The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies.

          Much biomedical research is observational. The reporting of such research is often inadequate, which hampers the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses and of a study's generalisability. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Initiative developed recommendations on what should be included in an accurate and complete report of an observational study. We defined the scope of the recommendations to cover three main study designs: cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. We convened a 2-day workshop in September 2004, with methodologists, researchers, and journal editors to draft a checklist of items. This list was subsequently revised during several meetings of the coordinating group and in e-mail discussions with the larger group of STROBE contributors, taking into account empirical evidence and methodological considerations. The workshop and the subsequent iterative process of consultation and revision resulted in a checklist of 22 items (the STROBE Statement) that relate to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results, and discussion sections of articles. 18 items are common to all three study designs and four are specific for cohort, case-control, or cross-sectional studies. A detailed Explanation and Elaboration document is published separately and is freely available on the Web sites of PLoS Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine, and Epidemiology. We hope that the STROBE Statement will contribute to improving the quality of reporting of observational studies.
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            Pure endoscopic endonasal approach for pituitary adenomas: early surgical results in 200 patients and comparison with previous microsurgical series.

            The aim of this study was to report the results of a consecutive series of patients undergoing pituitary surgery using a pure endoscopic endonasal approach and to evaluate the efficacy and safety of this procedure. We reviewed 200 consecutive patients with pituitary adenoma who underwent purely endoscopic transsphenoidal resection of their lesions. The patients' clinical outcomes, including remission rates, degrees of tumor removal, and complications, were evaluated and compared with a previous microscopic series. There were 111 nonfunctioning adenomas and 34 growth hormone-secreting, 27 adrenocorticotropin hormone-secreting, 25 prolactin-secreting, and 3 thyroid-stimulating hormone-secreting adenomas. The degree of gross total removal for tumors with suprasellar or parasellar extension and without cavernous sinus involvement was 96% and for intrasellar lesions was 98%. After a median follow-up period of 19 months, the remission results for patients with functioning adenomas were 71% for growth hormone-secreting, 81% for adrenocorticotropin hormone-secreting, and 88% for prolactin-secreting adenomas, with no recurrence at the time of the last follow-up. This compares with similar results reported from series using a standard microsurgical approach (growth hormone-secreting adenomas, 67%; adrenocorticotropin hormone-secreting adenomas, 78%; and prolactin-secreting adenomas, 62%). Endoscopic surgery for recurrent or residual nonfunctioning adenomas that had been previously treated using a microscopic approach revealed in the majority of cases a more limited exposure during the initial surgery, frequently with incomplete tumor removal. Complication rates have been low, and the average length of hospital stay was reduced. A purely endoscopic approach for pituitary adenoma treatment is a safe and effective alternative to the traditional microscopic procedure. Although our results reveal excellent tumor-removal rates, comparable remission rates in functioning tumors, and a very low rate of complications, additional studies with longer follow-up periods are required to confirm whether this approach should be considered the preferred procedure for pituitary surgery.
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              Endoscopic transsphenoidal approach: adaptability of the procedure to different sellar lesions.

              To demonstrate the flexibility of the endoscopic transsphenoidal approach, with respect to nasal and paranasal anatomic features and the extension of different sellar lesions, for customization of the procedure for specific conditions. In 16 of 170 consecutive endoscopic transsphenoidal operations, some modifications of the standard approach were adopted to optimize surgical removal of different lesions. These modifications consisted of a hemisphenoidotomy, a partial ethmoidectomy, extended sellar floor opening toward the planum sphenoidale or the clivus, enlarged opening of the sphenoid ostium area with ipsilateral removal of the superior turbinate, and a bilateral approach. The endoscopic endonasal procedure is easily adaptable to different specific conditions, with slight changes in the standard approach (more or less invasive). Therefore, this surgical procedure is satisfactory for different lesion locations and for the nasal and paranasal sinus anatomic features of individual patients. The endoscopic surgical route should be tailored to different sellar lesions, and some modifications of the procedure are recommended in selected cases.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                World Neurosurg
                World Neurosurg
                World Neurosurgery
                Elsevier Inc.
                1878-8750
                1878-8769
                13 April 2020
                13 April 2020
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Neurosurgery Department, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
                [2 ]Schulich School of Medicine and Density, Western University, London
                [3 ]Neurosurgery Department, Windsor Regional Hospital, Western University, ON, Canada
                [4 ]Ear, Nose and Throat Department, Windsor Regional Hospital, Western University, ON, Canada
                [5 ]Neurosurgery Department, Qassim University, Qassim, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
                Author notes
                []To whom correspondence should be addressed: Mohamed A.R. Soliman, M.D. moh.ar.sol@ 123456kasralainy.edu.eg
                Article
                S1878-8750(20)30735-X
                10.1016/j.wneu.2020.04.028
                7195030
                32298827
                © 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

                Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.

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