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      Dynamic Neural Network Reconfiguration During the Generation and Reinstatement of Mnemonic Representations

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          Mnemonic representations allow humans to re-experience the past or simulate future scenarios by integrating episodic features from memory. Theoretical models posit that mnemonic representations require dynamic processing between neural indexes in the hippocampus and areas of the cortex providing specialized information processing. However, it remains unknown whether global and local network topology varies as information is encoded into a mnemonic representation and subsequently reinstated. Here, we investigated the dynamic nature of memory networks while a representation of a virtual city is generated and reinstated during mental simulations. We find that the brain reconfigures from a state of heightened integration when encoding demands are highest, to a state of localized processing once representations are formed. This reconfiguration is associated with changes in hippocampal centrality at the intra- and inter-module level, decreasing its role as a connector hub between modules and within a hippocampal neighborhood as encoding demands lessen. During mental simulations, we found increased levels of hippocampal centrality within its local neighborhood coupled with decreased functional interactions between other regions of the neighborhood during highly vivid simulations, suggesting that information flow vis-à-vis the hippocampus is critical for high fidelity recapitulation of mnemonic representations.

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          Collective dynamics of 'small-world' networks.

          Networks of coupled dynamical systems have been used to model biological oscillators, Josephson junction arrays, excitable media, neural networks, spatial games, genetic control networks and many other self-organizing systems. Ordinarily, the connection topology is assumed to be either completely regular or completely random. But many biological, technological and social networks lie somewhere between these two extremes. Here we explore simple models of networks that can be tuned through this middle ground: regular networks 'rewired' to introduce increasing amounts of disorder. We find that these systems can be highly clustered, like regular lattices, yet have small characteristic path lengths, like random graphs. We call them 'small-world' networks, by analogy with the small-world phenomenon (popularly known as six degrees of separation. The neural network of the worm Caenorhabditis elegans, the power grid of the western United States, and the collaboration graph of film actors are shown to be small-world networks. Models of dynamical systems with small-world coupling display enhanced signal-propagation speed, computational power, and synchronizability. In particular, infectious diseases spread more easily in small-world networks than in regular lattices.
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            Complex brain networks: graph theoretical analysis of structural and functional systems.

            Recent developments in the quantitative analysis of complex networks, based largely on graph theory, have been rapidly translated to studies of brain network organization. The brain's structural and functional systems have features of complex networks--such as small-world topology, highly connected hubs and modularity--both at the whole-brain scale of human neuroimaging and at a cellular scale in non-human animals. In this article, we review studies investigating complex brain networks in diverse experimental modalities (including structural and functional MRI, diffusion tensor imaging, magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography in humans) and provide an accessible introduction to the basic principles of graph theory. We also highlight some of the technical challenges and key questions to be addressed by future developments in this rapidly moving field.
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              Complex network measures of brain connectivity: uses and interpretations.

              Brain connectivity datasets comprise networks of brain regions connected by anatomical tracts or by functional associations. Complex network analysis-a new multidisciplinary approach to the study of complex systems-aims to characterize these brain networks with a small number of neurobiologically meaningful and easily computable measures. In this article, we discuss construction of brain networks from connectivity data and describe the most commonly used network measures of structural and functional connectivity. We describe measures that variously detect functional integration and segregation, quantify centrality of individual brain regions or pathways, characterize patterns of local anatomical circuitry, and test resilience of networks to insult. We discuss the issues surrounding comparison of structural and functional network connectivity, as well as comparison of networks across subjects. Finally, we describe a Matlab toolbox ( accompanying this article and containing a collection of complex network measures and large-scale neuroanatomical connectivity datasets. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                Front Hum Neurosci
                Front Hum Neurosci
                Front. Hum. Neurosci.
                Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                20 July 2018
                : 12
                1Department of Psychology, Hotchkiss Brain Institute and Alberta Children’s Hospital Research Institute, University of Calgary , Calgary, AB, Canada
                2Center for Neuroscience, University of California, Davis , Davis, CA, United States
                3Department of Psychology, University of California, Davis , Davis, CA, United States
                4Neuroscience Graduate Group, University of California, Davis , Davis, CA, United States
                Author notes

                Edited by: Elizabeth Chrastil, University of California, Santa Barbara, United States

                Reviewed by: Katherine Sherrill, University of Texas at Austin, United States; Kelly Giovanello, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, United States

                *Correspondence: Giuseppe Iaria, giaria@
                Copyright © 2018 Arnold, Ekstrom and Iaria.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Figures: 5, Tables: 6, Equations: 6, References: 89, Pages: 21, Words: 0
                Funded by: Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada 10.13039/501100000038
                Original Research


                virtual environment, orientation, navigation, hippocampus, graph theory, fmri


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