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      Increased Incidence of Tuberculosis in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients

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          Abstract

          We encountered 9 cases of tuberculosis out of our 157 chronic HD patients in 36 months. Four pulmonary, 4 lymph nodal and one isolated dermal involvement were detected. Therapy was commenced without waiting for absolute cultural or pathologic diagnosis because of the high index of clinical suspicion. All cases except one recovered completely. Among associated conditions, peptic ulcer disease, anti-HCV positivity, and diabetes mellitus were noted, though the last two did not reach statistical significance. Prompt institution of the specific therapy and close supervision of the cases during treatment enabled us to obtain a cure in all cases except one and to discern adverse drug effects immediately and to make appropriate changes in the therapy. Thus, no morbidity due to the disease itself or drugs was observed.

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          Tuberculosis in Active Dialysis Patients in Jeddah

          The incidence of tuberculosis in The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia remains high. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of Tuberculosis among haemodialysis patients, since they are highly susceptible to this infection. A retrospective study, over a 5-year period, was carried out in the Renal Units of two large hospitals in Jeddah. Diagnosis was established by Ziehl Neelsen microscopy and culture of specimens on Lowenstein-Jensen media, radiological and histological examinations. Tuberculosis was diagnosed in 17 of 210 patients on hemodialysis. Pulmonary tuberculosis was present in 10 cases and tuberculous lymphadenitis in 8 cases. One patient had both pulmonary and lymph node involvement while another one had both pulmonary and peritoneal tuberculosis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was diagnosed in sputum in 5 cases, by lymph node histopathology in 5 cases, and combined radiological and clinical evidence in the remaining patients. The Mantoux test was positive in 9 (60%) cases. Eight patients were diabetics (47%) and there appears to be some association of tuberculosis with diabetes in patients on dialysis. Treatment with first-line anti-tuberculosis agents was continued for 6–18 months. Fourteen (82%) patients were completely cured while 3 showed clinical improvement only. The study showed that successful therapy of tuberculosis in this group of dialysis patients could be achieved but high index of suspicion is required to recognize the unusual presentation in this group of patients so that early diagnosis can be achieved and prompt treatment instituted. Diabetic patients presenting for dialysis, in areas with high endemicity for tuberculosis, chemoprophylaxis with anti-tuberculosis agents should be considered.
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            Diagnosis and Treatment of Tuberculosis in Hemodialysis and Renal Transplant Patients

            Background: The incidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in hemodialysis (HD) and renal transplant (RT) patients in developing countries is high. With the resurgence of tuberculosis in the US, insights gained in the diagnosis and treatment of this infection in HD and RT patients in developing countries should be valuable to physicians in the West. Methods: A retrospective study of 40 cases of tuberculosis, 24 in HD patients (24/177, 13.6%) and 16 in RT patients (16/109, 14.7%) diagnosed over a period of 21 months in one center. Results: The clinical features, diagnostic procedures, and management dilemmas of this group of patients are described in this report. Diabetes mellitus was the most common associated disease in both groups of patients. Fever, the most common presenting sign, was persistent low grade in 66.6% of HD patients and high intermittent in 56.2% of RT patients. Fever of unknown origin was only seen in RT patients. Pulmonary involvement was most common in both groups, presenting either as infiltrates or effusions. Tuberculous peritonitis was seen only in HD patients (33.3%). Eight HD patients were treated for tuberculosis for variable periods prior to transplantation, 4 of whom had less than 6 months of therapy. None had a recurrence of tuberculosis after transplantation. Because of the known cyclosporin-lowering effect of rifampicin resulting in an increased cost of immunosuppressive therapy, 13 patients were treated successfully with rifampicin-sparing therapy. Conclusion: Tuberculosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of fever in HD and RT patients, especially if fever is of unknown origin in the RT patient. M. tuberculosis in the renal transplant patient can present with high intermittent fever. Partial treatment of tuberculosis is sufficient prior to renal transplantation but treatment should be continued to completion after transplantation. If the cost of immunosuppressive therapy is prohibitive because of rifampicin, rifampicin-sparing antituberculosis therapy can be successfully employed in RT patients.
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              Author and article information

              Journal
              AJN
              Am J Nephrol
              10.1159/issn.0250-8095
              American Journal of Nephrology
              S. Karger AG
              0250-8095
              1421-9670
              2001
              December 2001
              28 December 2001
              : 21
              : 6
              : 490-493
              Affiliations
              Department of Nephrology, Medical School of Celal Bayar University, Manisa, Turkey
              Article
              46654 Am J Nephrol 2001;21:490–493
              10.1159/000046654
              11799267
              © 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

              Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

              Page count
              Tables: 2, References: 15, Pages: 4
              Product
              Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/46654
              Categories
              Case Report

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