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      Antibody repertoire analysis in polygenic autoimmune diseases

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          Summary

          High‐throughput sequencing of the DNA/RNA encoding antibody heavy‐ and light‐chains is rapidly transforming the field of adaptive immunity. It can address key questions, including: (i) how the B‐cell repertoire differs in health and disease; and (ii) if it does differ, the point(s) in B‐cell development at which this occurs. The advent of technologies, such as whole‐genome sequencing, offers the chance to link abnormalities in the B‐cell antibody repertoire to specific genomic variants and polymorphisms. Here, we discuss the current research using B‐cell antibody repertoire sequencing in three polygenic autoimmune diseases where there is good evidence for a pathological role for B‐cells, namely systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. These autoimmune diseases exhibit significantly skewed B‐cell receptor repertoires compared with healthy controls. Interestingly, some common repertoire defects are shared between diseases, such as elevated IGHV4‐34 gene usage. B‐cell clones have effectively been characterized and tracked between different tissues and blood in autoimmune disease. It has been hypothesized that these differences may signify differences in B‐cell tolerance; however, the mechanisms and implications of these defects are not clear.

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          Most cited references 129

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          Multiple sclerosis.

          Multiple sclerosis is primarily an inflammatory disorder of the brain and spinal cord in which focal lymphocytic infiltration leads to damage of myelin and axons. Initially, inflammation is transient and remyelination occurs but is not durable. Hence, the early course of disease is characterised by episodes of neurological dysfunction that usually recover. However, over time the pathological changes become dominated by widespread microglial activation associated with extensive and chronic neurodegeneration, the clinical correlate of which is progressive accumulation of disability. Paraclinical investigations show abnormalities that indicate the distribution of inflammatory lesions and axonal loss (MRI); interference of conduction in previously myelinated pathways (evoked electrophysiological potentials); and intrathecal synthesis of oligoclonal antibody (examination by lumbar puncture of the cerebrospinal fluid). Multiple sclerosis is triggered by environmental factors in individuals with complex genetic-risk profiles. Licensed disease modifying agents reduce the frequency of new episodes but do not reverse fixed deficits and have questionable effects on the long-term accumulation of disability and disease progression. We anticipate that future studies in multiple sclerosis will provide a new taxonomy on the basis of mechanisms rather than clinical empiricism, and so inform strategies for improved treatment at all stages of the disease.
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            Genetic risk and a primary role for cell-mediated immune mechanisms in multiple sclerosis

            Multiple sclerosis (OMIM 126200) is a common disease of the central nervous system in which the interplay between inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes typically results in intermittent neurological disturbance followed by progressive accumulation of disability. 1 Epidemiological studies have shown that genetic factors are primarily responsible for the substantially increased frequency of the disease seen in the relatives of affected individuals; 2,3 and systematic attempts to identify linkage in multiplex families have confirmed that variation within the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) exerts the greatest individual effect on risk. 4 Modestly powered Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) 5-10 have enabled more than 20 additional risk loci to be identified and have shown that multiple variants exerting modest individual effects play a key role in disease susceptibility. 11 Most of the genetic architecture underlying susceptibility to the disease remains to be defined and is anticipated to require the analysis of sample sizes that are beyond the numbers currently available to individual research groups. In a collaborative GWAS involving 9772 cases of European descent collected by 23 research groups working in 15 different countries, we have replicated almost all of the previously suggested associations and identified at least a further 29 novel susceptibility loci. Within the MHC we have refined the identity of the DRB1 risk alleles and confirmed that variation in the HLA-A gene underlies the independent protective effect attributable to the Class I region. Immunologically relevant genes are significantly over-represented amongst those mapping close to the identified loci and particularly implicate T helper cell differentiation in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis.
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              Evolving concepts of rheumatoid arthritis.

              Rheumatoid arthritis is the most common inflammatory arthritis and is a major cause of disability. It existed in early Native American populations several thousand years ago but might not have appeared in Europe until the 17th century. Early theories on the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis focused on autoantibodies and immune complexes. T-cell-mediated antigen-specific responses, T-cell-independent cytokine networks, and aggressive tumour-like behaviour of rheumatoid synovium have also been implicated. More recently, the contribution of autoantibodies has returned to the forefront. Based on the pathogenic mechanisms, specific therapeutic interventions can be designed to suppress synovial inflammation and joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] Department of Medicine University of Cambridge Cambridge UK
                Author notes
                [* ] Correspondence: Rachael J. M. Bashford‐Rogers, Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK. Email: rb520@ 123456cam.ac.uk

                Senior author: David Thomas

                Email: tdct2@ 123456cam.ac.uk

                Contributors
                ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6838-0711, rb520@cam.ac.uk
                Journal
                Immunology
                Immunology
                10.1111/(ISSN)1365-2567
                IMM
                Immunology
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                0019-2805
                1365-2567
                16 April 2018
                September 2018
                16 April 2018
                : 155
                : 1 ( doiID: 10.1111/imm.2018.155.issue-1 )
                : 3-17
                29574826 6099162 10.1111/imm.12927 IMM12927
                © 2018 The Authors. Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

                This is an open access article under the terms of the http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Counts
                Figures: 1, Tables: 3, Pages: 15, Words: 12137
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: Wellcome Trust
                Award ID: WT106068AIA
                Categories
                Review Article
                New Tools and Applications of Immune Receptor Profiling by High‐throughput Sequencing
                Review Articles
                Custom metadata
                2.0
                imm12927
                September 2018
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_NLMPMC version:version=5.4.4 mode:remove_FC converted:20.08.2018

                Immunology

                b‐cell receptors, antibodies, autoantibodies, autoimmunity, b‐cell

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