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      The biology and control of Phlebotomine sand flies

      Clinics in Dermatology

      Elsevier BV

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          Salivary gland lysates from the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis enhance Leishmania infectivity.

           R Titus,  Jose Ribeiro (1988)
          Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies. The role of sand fly saliva in transmission of the disease was investigated by injecting mice with Leishmania major parasites in the presence of homogenized salivary glands from Lutzomyia longipalpis. This procedure resulted in cutaneous lesions of Leishmania major that were routinely five to ten times as large and contained as much as 5000 times as many parasites as controls. With inocula consisting of low numbers of Leishmania major, parasites were detected at the site of injection only when the inoculum also contained salivary gland material. This enhancing effect of sand fly salivary glands on cutaneous leishmaniasis occurred with as little as 10 percent of the contents of one salivary gland of one fly. Material obtained from other bloodsucking arthropods could not mediate the phenomenon.
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            Phlebotomine vectors of the leishmaniases: a review

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              Evidence that the vectorial competence of phlebotomine sand flies for different species of Leishmania is controlled by structural polymorphisms in the surface lipophosphoglycan.

              Phlebotomine vectors can in some instances transmit only certain species of Leishmania. Comparison of a large number of vector/parasite pairs revealed that species-specific differences in vectorial competence were in every case directly correlated with the ability of promastigotes to attach to the sand-fly midgut, the variable outcomes of which were controlled by structural polymorphisms in the surface lipophosphoglycan (LPG) of the parasite. The ability of Phlebotomus papatasi to transmit only Leishmania major could be attributed to the unique, highly substituted nature of L. major LPG that provides for multiple terminally exposed beta-linked galactose residues for binding. While the relatively unsubstituted LPGs of other Leishmania species were unable to mediate promastigote attachment to P. papatasi, they could mediate binding to midguts of Phlebotomus argentipes, which was found to be a potentially competent vector for every Leishmania species examined. The data suggest that at least some phlebotomine vectors differ with respect to the parasite recognition sites which they express and that midgut adhesion is a sufficiently critical component of vectorial competence as to provide the evolutionary drive for LPG structural polymorphisms.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Clinics in Dermatology
                Elsevier BV
                0738081X
                May 1999
                : 17
                : 3
                : 279-289
                Article
                10.1016/S0738-081X(99)00046-2

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