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      Coronavirus Disease 2019: Initial Detection on Chest CT in a Retrospective Multicenter Study of 103 Chinese Subjects

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          Abstract

          Background

          Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new viral respiratory disease that has recently emerged from China, becoming a pandemic. However, few studies have analyzed data regarding the clinical performance of chest computed tomography (CT) obtained in subjects with suspected COVID-19 at the initial presentation to medical facilities.

          Objective

          The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the performance of chest CT the initial presentation of patients with suspected COVID-19.

          Methods

          Data from 103 patients who were under investigation for COVID-19 based on inclusion criteria according to WHO Interim Guidance were retrospectively collected from January 21, 2020 to February 14, 2020. All patients underwent chest CT scanning and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction testing (RT-PCR) for COVID-19 at hospital presentation. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) (with 95% confidence intervals) were calculated to evaluate the performance of CT. Subgroup analyses were also performed based on the geographical distribution of these cases in the province of Henan, China.

          Results

          There were 88 /103 (85%) patients with COVID-19 confirmed by RT-PCR. The overall sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 93% (85-97%), 53% (27-77%), 92% (83-96%), and 42% (18-70%), respectively. Similar results were shown in both geographic regions. The respective sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV for chest CT in the districts of Xinyang and Zhumadian (n = 56) were 92% (80-97%), 63% (26-90%), 93% (81-98%), and 56% (23-85%), while these indicators in the district of Anyang (n = 47) were 95% (81-99%), 43% (12-80%), 90% (76-97%), and 60% (17-93%). There were no significant differences in the prevalence of positive exams in the two geographic subgroups for CT ( P=0.423) or RT-PCR ( P=0.931).

          Conclusion

          Although initial chest CT obtained at hospital presentation showed high sensitivity in patients under investigation for COVID-19 in the two geographic regions in Henan province, the NPV was only modest, suggesting low value of CT as a screening tool.

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          Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China

          Summary Background A recent cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China, was caused by a novel betacoronavirus, the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). We report the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics and treatment and clinical outcomes of these patients. Methods All patients with suspected 2019-nCoV were admitted to a designated hospital in Wuhan. We prospectively collected and analysed data on patients with laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection by real-time RT-PCR and next-generation sequencing. Data were obtained with standardised data collection forms shared by WHO and the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium from electronic medical records. Researchers also directly communicated with patients or their families to ascertain epidemiological and symptom data. Outcomes were also compared between patients who had been admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and those who had not. Findings By Jan 2, 2020, 41 admitted hospital patients had been identified as having laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection. Most of the infected patients were men (30 [73%] of 41); less than half had underlying diseases (13 [32%]), including diabetes (eight [20%]), hypertension (six [15%]), and cardiovascular disease (six [15%]). Median age was 49·0 years (IQR 41·0–58·0). 27 (66%) of 41 patients had been exposed to Huanan seafood market. One family cluster was found. Common symptoms at onset of illness were fever (40 [98%] of 41 patients), cough (31 [76%]), and myalgia or fatigue (18 [44%]); less common symptoms were sputum production (11 [28%] of 39), headache (three [8%] of 38), haemoptysis (two [5%] of 39), and diarrhoea (one [3%] of 38). Dyspnoea developed in 22 (55%) of 40 patients (median time from illness onset to dyspnoea 8·0 days [IQR 5·0–13·0]). 26 (63%) of 41 patients had lymphopenia. All 41 patients had pneumonia with abnormal findings on chest CT. Complications included acute respiratory distress syndrome (12 [29%]), RNAaemia (six [15%]), acute cardiac injury (five [12%]) and secondary infection (four [10%]). 13 (32%) patients were admitted to an ICU and six (15%) died. Compared with non-ICU patients, ICU patients had higher plasma levels of IL2, IL7, IL10, GSCF, IP10, MCP1, MIP1A, and TNFα. Interpretation The 2019-nCoV infection caused clusters of severe respiratory illness similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and was associated with ICU admission and high mortality. Major gaps in our knowledge of the origin, epidemiology, duration of human transmission, and clinical spectrum of disease need fulfilment by future studies. Funding Ministry of Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, National Natural Science Foundation of China, and Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Commission.
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            Thin-section CT of severe acute respiratory syndrome: evaluation of 73 patients exposed to or with the disease.

            To retrospectively analyze the thin-section computed tomographic (CT) features in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) at the authors' institution. From March 11, 2003, to April 2, 2003, 74 patients with symptoms and signs suggestive of SARS underwent CT of the thorax; all underwent thin-section CT except for one patient who underwent conventional CT. Group 1 (n = 23) patients had symptoms of SARS in keeping with criteria from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and a positive chest radiograph. Group 2 (n = 17) patients had a high clinical suspicion of SARS but a normal radiograph. Group 3 (n = 34) patients had minor symptoms and a normal chest radiograph. The thin-section CT images were analyzed for ground-glass opacification or consolidation, lesion size in each lung segment, peripheral or central location, interstitial thickening, and other abnormalities. Thin-section CT scans were abnormal only for patients in groups 1 and 2. The patient with only conventional CT scans was in group 3; scans for group 3 patients were normal. Affected segments were predominantly in the lower lobes (91 of 149 affected segments). Common findings included ground-glass opacification, sometimes with consolidation, and interlobular septal and intralobular interstitial thickening. The size of each lesion and the total number of segments involved were smaller in group 2 patients. A majority of patients in group 1 (14 of 23) had mixed central and peripheral lesions. In group 2, however, peripheral lesions were more common (10 of 17). In both groups, a purely central lesion was uncommon (one of 23 in group 1 and two of 17 in group 2). Common thin-section CT features of SARS are ground-glass opacification and lower lobe and peripheral distribution. Copyright RSNA, 2003.
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              Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia Outbreak in 2019: Computed Tomographic Findings in Two Cases

              Since the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV or officially named by the World Health Organization as COVID-19) outbreak in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China in 2019, there have been a few reports of its imaging findings. Here, we report two confirmed cases of 2019-nCoV pneumonia with chest computed tomography findings of multiple regions of patchy consolidation and ground-glass opacities in both lungs. These findings were characteristically located along the bronchial bundle or subpleural lungs.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Radiol Cardiothorac Imaging
                Radiol Cardiothorac Imaging
                cardiothoracic
                Radiology. Cardiothoracic Imaging
                Radiological Society of North America
                2638-6135
                06 April 2020
                : 2
                : 2
                Affiliations
                Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Henan University of CM, Zhengzhou 450000, Henan Province, China (Z.W., J.C., L.C., D.W.); Department of Radiology, The Fifth Hospital of Anyang, Anyang 455000, Henan Province, China (Y.C.); Department of Radiology, Zhumadian Central Hospital, Zhumadian 463000, Henan Province, China (L.Z.); GE Healthcare, Shanghai, 201203, China (H.L.); Department of Radiology, XinYang Central Hospital, Xinyang 464000, Henan Province, China (K.D.); Department of Radiology, Xinxian People's Hospital, Xinxin 465550, Henan Province, China (Z.L.)
                Author notes
                Address correspondence to D.W. (e-mail: wangdaoqing1215@ 123456126.com )
                Article
                200092
                10.1148/ryct.2020200092
                7194021
                2020 by the Radiological Society of North America, Inc.

                This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the COVID-19 pandemic or until permissions are revoked in writing. Upon expiration of these permissions, PMC is granted a perpetual license to make this article available via PMC and Europe PMC, consistent with existing copyright protections.

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