Blog
About

7
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: not found
      • Article: not found

      Widespread contribution of transposable elements to the innovation of gene regulatory networks

      Genome research

      Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisher
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 35

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: found
          Is Open Access

          Editorial

            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            ChIP-seq accurately predicts tissue-specific activity of enhancers.

            A major yet unresolved quest in decoding the human genome is the identification of the regulatory sequences that control the spatial and temporal expression of genes. Distant-acting transcriptional enhancers are particularly challenging to uncover because they are scattered among the vast non-coding portion of the genome. Evolutionary sequence constraint can facilitate the discovery of enhancers, but fails to predict when and where they are active in vivo. Here we present the results of chromatin immunoprecipitation with the enhancer-associated protein p300 followed by massively parallel sequencing, and map several thousand in vivo binding sites of p300 in mouse embryonic forebrain, midbrain and limb tissue. We tested 86 of these sequences in a transgenic mouse assay, which in nearly all cases demonstrated reproducible enhancer activity in the tissues that were predicted by p300 binding. Our results indicate that in vivo mapping of p300 binding is a highly accurate means for identifying enhancers and their associated activities, and suggest that such data sets will be useful to study the role of tissue-specific enhancers in human biology and disease on a genome-wide scale.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Conserved Role of Intragenic DNA Methylation in Regulating Alternative Promoters

              While the methylation of DNA in 5′ promoters suppresses gene expression, the role of DNA methylation in gene bodies is unclear 1–5 . In mammals, tissue- and cell type-specific methylation is present in a small percentage of 5′ CpG island (CGI) promoters, while a far greater proportion occurs across gene bodies, coinciding with highly conserved sequences 5–10 . Tissue-specific intragenic methylation might reduce, 3 or, paradoxically, enhance transcription elongation efficiency 1,2,4,5 . Capped analysis of gene expression (CAGE) experiments also indicate that transcription commonly initiates within and between genes 11–15 . To investigate the role of intragenic methylation, we generated a map of DNA methylation from human brain encompassing 24.7 million of the 28 million CpG sites. From the dense, high-resolution coverage of CpG islands, the majority of methylated CpG islands were revealed to be in intragenic and intergenic regions, while less than 3% of CpG islands in 5′ promoters were methylated. The CpG islands in all three locations overlapped with RNA markers of transcription initiation, and unmethylated CpG islands also overlapped significantly with trimethylation of H3K4, a histone modification enriched at promoters 16 . The general and CpG-island-specific patterns of methylation are conserved in mouse tissues. An in-depth investigation of the human SHANK3 locus 17,18 and its mouse homologue demonstrated that this tissue-specific DNA methylation regulates intragenic promoter activity in vitro and in vivo. These methylation-regulated, alternative transcripts are expressed in a tissue and cell type-specific manner, and are expressed differentially within a single cell type from distinct brain regions. These results support a major role for intragenic methylation in regulating cell context-specific alternative promoters in gene bodies.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                10.1101/gr.168872.113

                Comments

                Comment on this article