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      Long noncoding RNAs are rarely translated in two human cell lines.

      Genome research
      Amino Acid Sequence, Base Sequence, Cell Line, Gene Expression, Gene Expression Profiling, Gene Expression Regulation, Humans, K562 Cells, Molecular Sequence Annotation, Molecular Sequence Data, Peptides, genetics, Protein Biosynthesis, RNA, Long Noncoding, metabolism, RNA, Messenger, Sequence Alignment, Tandem Mass Spectrometry, methods

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          Abstract

          Data from the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project show over 9640 human genome loci classified as long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), yet only ~100 have been deeply characterized to determine their role in the cell. To measure the protein-coding output from these RNAs, we jointly analyzed two recent data sets produced in the ENCODE project: tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) data mapping expressed peptides to their encoding genomic loci, and RNA-seq data generated by ENCODE in long polyA+ and polyA- fractions in the cell lines K562 and GM12878. We used the machine-learning algorithm RuleFit3 to regress the peptide data against RNA expression data. The most important covariate for predicting translation was, surprisingly, the Cytosol polyA- fraction in both cell lines. LncRNAs are ~13-fold less likely to produce detectable peptides than similar mRNAs, indicating that ~92% of GENCODE v7 lncRNAs are not translated in these two ENCODE cell lines. Intersecting 9640 lncRNA loci with 79,333 peptides yielded 85 unique peptides matching 69 lncRNAs. Most cases were due to a coding transcript misannotated as lncRNA. Two exceptions were an unprocessed pseudogene and a bona fide lncRNA gene, both with open reading frames (ORFs) compromised by upstream stop codons. All potentially translatable lncRNA ORFs had only a single peptide match, indicating low protein abundance and/or false-positive peptide matches. We conclude that with very few exceptions, ribosomes are able to distinguish coding from noncoding transcripts and, hence, that ectopic translation and cryptic mRNAs are rare in the human lncRNAome.

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            An Integrated Encyclopedia of DNA Elements in the Human Genome

            Summary The human genome encodes the blueprint of life, but the function of the vast majority of its nearly three billion bases is unknown. The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project has systematically mapped regions of transcription, transcription factor association, chromatin structure, and histone modification. These data enabled us to assign biochemical functions for 80% of the genome, in particular outside of the well-studied protein-coding regions. Many discovered candidate regulatory elements are physically associated with one another and with expressed genes, providing new insights into the mechanisms of gene regulation. The newly identified elements also show a statistical correspondence to sequence variants linked to human disease, and can thereby guide interpretation of this variation. Overall the project provides new insights into the organization and regulation of our genes and genome, and an expansive resource of functional annotations for biomedical research.
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              Universal sample preparation method for proteome analysis.

              We describe a method, filter-aided sample preparation (FASP), which combines the advantages of in-gel and in-solution digestion for mass spectrometry-based proteomics. We completely solubilized the proteome in sodium dodecyl sulfate, which we then exchanged by urea on a standard filtration device. Peptides eluted after digestion on the filter were pure, allowing single-run analyses of organelles and an unprecedented depth of proteome coverage.
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