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      Is Open Access

      Alcohol's effects on adolescents.

      Alcohol research & health : the journal of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

      Adolescent, Alcohol Drinking, adverse effects, Brain, drug effects, Ethanol, Female, Humans, Male, Sex Factors

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          Most cited references 42

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          The adolescent brain and age-related behavioral manifestations.

          To successfully negotiate the developmental transition between youth and adulthood, adolescents must maneuver this often stressful period while acquiring skills necessary for independence. Certain behavioral features, including age-related increases in social behavior and risk-taking/novelty-seeking, are common among adolescents of diverse mammalian species and may aid in this process. Reduced positive incentive values from stimuli may lead adolescents to pursue new appetitive reinforcers through drug use and other risk-taking behaviors, with their relative insensitivity to drugs supporting comparatively greater per occasion use. Pubertal increases in gonadal hormones are a hallmark of adolescence, although there is little evidence for a simple association of these hormones with behavioral change during adolescence. Prominent developmental transformations are seen in prefrontal cortex and limbic brain regions of adolescents across a variety of species, alterations that include an apparent shift in the balance between mesocortical and mesolimbic dopamine systems. Developmental changes in these stressor-sensitive regions, which are critical for attributing incentive salience to drugs and other stimuli, likely contribute to the unique characteristics of adolescence.
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            Adolescent storm and stress, reconsidered.

             J Arnett (1999)
            G. S. Hall's (1904) view that adolescence is a period of heightened "storm and stress" is reconsidered in light of contemporary research. The author provides a brief history of the storm-and-stress view and examines 3 key aspects of this view: conflict with parents, mood disruptions, and risk behavior. In all 3 areas, evidence supports a modified storm-and-stress view that takes into account individual differences and cultural variations. Not all adolescents experience storm and stress, but storm and stress is more likely during adolescence than at other ages. Adolescent storm and stress tends to be lower in traditional cultures than in the West but may increase as globalization increases individualism. Similar issues apply to minority cultures in American society. Finally, although the general public is sometimes portrayed by scholars as having a stereotypical view of adolescent storm and stress, both scholars and the general public appear to support a modified storm-and-stress view.
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              Reckless behavior in adolescence: A developmental perspective

               J Arnett (1992)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                12875039

                Chemistry

                Adolescent, Alcohol Drinking, adverse effects, Brain, drug effects, Ethanol, Female, Humans, Male, Sex Factors

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