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      Overall Survival with Osimertinib in Untreated, EGFR-Mutated Advanced NSCLC

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          Abstract

          Osimertinib is a third-generation, irreversible tyrosine kinase inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR-TKI) that selectively inhibits both EGFR-TKI-sensitizing and EGFR T790M resistance mutations. A phase 3 trial compared first-line osimertinib with other EGFR-TKIs in patients with EGFR mutation-positive advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The trial showed longer progression-free survival with osimertinib than with the comparator EGFR-TKIs (hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.46). Data from the final analysis of overall survival have not been reported.

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          CNS Response to Osimertinib Versus Standard Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Patients With Untreated EGFR-Mutated Advanced Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer

          Purpose We report CNS efficacy of osimertinib versus standard epidermal growth factor receptor ( EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in patients with untreated EGFR-mutated advanced non-small-cell lung cancer from the phase III FLAURA study. Patients and Methods Patients (N = 556) were randomly assigned to osimertinib or standard EGFR-TKIs (gefitinib or erlotinib); brain scans were not mandated unless clinically indicated. Patients with asymptomatic or stable CNS metastases were included. In patients with symptomatic CNS metastases, neurologic status was required to be stable for ≥ 2 weeks after completion of definitive therapy and corticosteroids. A preplanned subgroup analysis with CNS progression-free survival as primary objective was conducted in patients with measurable and/or nonmeasurable CNS lesions on baseline brain scan by blinded independent central neuroradiologic review. The CNS evaluable-for-response set included patients with ≥ one measurable CNS lesion. Results Of 200 patients with available brain scans at baseline, 128 (osimertinib, n = 61; standard EGFR-TKIs, n = 67) had measurable and/or nonmeasurable CNS lesions, including 41 patients (osimertinib, n = 22; standard EGFR-TKIs, n = 19) with ≥ one measurable CNS lesion. Median CNS progression-free survival in patients with measurable and/or nonmeasurable CNS lesions was not reached with osimertinib (95% CI, 16.5 months to not calculable) and 13.9 months (95% CI, 8.3 months to not calculable) with standard EGFR-TKIs (hazard ratio, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.26 to 0.86; P = .014 [nominally statistically significant]). CNS objective response rates were 91% and 68% in patients with ≥ one measurable CNS lesion (odds ratio, 4.6; 95% CI, 0.9 to 34.9; P = .066) and 66% and 43% in patients with measurable and/or nonmeasurable CNS lesions (odds ratio, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2 to 5.2; P = .011) treated with osimertinib and standard EGFR-TKIs, respectively. Probability of experiencing a CNS progression event was consistently lower with osimertinib versus standard EGFR-TKIs. Conclusion Osimertinib has CNS efficacy in patients with untreated EGFR-mutated non-small-cell lung cancer. These results suggest a reduced risk of CNS progression with osimertinib versus standard EGFR-TKIs.
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            CNS Efficacy of Osimertinib in Patients With T790M-Positive Advanced Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Data From a Randomized Phase III Trial (AURA3)

            Purpose In patients with epidermal growth factor receptor ( EGFR) mutation-positive advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), there is an unmet need for EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors with improved CNS penetration and activity against CNS metastases, either at initial diagnosis or time of progression. We report the first comparative evidence of osimertinib CNS efficacy versus platinum-pemetrexed from a phase III study (AURA3; ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02151981) in patients with EGFR T790M-positive advanced NSCLC who experience disease progression with prior EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment. Methods Patients with asymptomatic, stable CNS metastases were eligible for enrollment and were randomly assigned 2:1 to osimertinib 80 mg once daily or platinum-pemetrexed. A preplanned subgroup analysis was conducted in patients with measurable and/or nonmeasurable CNS lesions on baseline brain scan by blinded independent central neuroradiological review. The CNS evaluable for response set included only patients with one or more measurable CNS lesions. The primary objective for this analysis was CNS objective response rate (ORR). Results Of 419 patients randomly assigned to treatment, 116 had measurable and/or nonmeasurable CNS lesions, including 46 patients with measurable CNS lesions. At data cutoff (April 15, 2016), CNS ORR in patients with one or more measurable CNS lesions was 70% (21 of 30; 95% CI, 51% to 85%) with osimertinib and 31% (5 of 16; 95% CI, 11% to 59%) with platinum-pemetrexed (odds ratio, 5.13; 95% CI, 1.44 to 20.64; P = .015); the ORR was 40% (30 of 75; 95% CI, 29% to 52%) and 17% (7 of 41; 95% CI, 7% to 32%), respectively, in patients with measurable and/or nonmeasurable CNS lesions (odds ratio, 3.24; 95% CI, 1.33 to 8.81; P = .014). Median CNS duration of response in patients with measurable and/or nonmeasurable CNS lesions was 8.9 months (95% CI, 4.3 months to not calculable) for osimertinib and 5.7 months (95% CI, 4.4 to 5.7 months) for platinum-pemetrexed; median CNS progression-free survival was 11.7 months and 5.6 months, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.15 to 0.69; P = .004). Conclusion Osimertinib demonstrated superior CNS efficacy versus platinum-pemetrexed in T790M-positive advanced NSCLC.
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              Brain metastases in patients with EGFR-mutated or ALK-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancers.

              Brain metastases (BM) are common in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the baseline incidence and evolution of BM over time in oncogene-driven NSCLCs are seldom reported. In this study, we evaluated the frequency of BM in patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutated or anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-rearranged NSCLC.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                New England Journal of Medicine
                N Engl J Med
                Massachusetts Medical Society
                0028-4793
                1533-4406
                November 21 2019
                Affiliations
                [1 ]From Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta (S.S.R.); the Respiratory Oncology Unit, Department of Respiratory Medicine, University Hospital KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium (J.V.); the Thoracic Unit, Department of Medical Oncology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (D.P., J.-C.S.), and University Paris Sud, Orsay (J.-C.S.) — both in France; the Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (B.C...
                Article
                10.1056/NEJMoa1913662
                31751012
                13ac5b83-66ce-40dc-b725-0fcaa265e9ae
                © 2019

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