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      Thermal Manipulation During Embryogenesis Impacts H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 Histone Marks in Chicken Hypothalamus

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          Changes in gene activity through epigenetic alterations induced by early environmental challenges during embryogenesis are known to impact the phenotype, health, and disease risk of animals. Learning how environmental cues translate into persisting epigenetic memory may open new doors to improve robustness and resilience of developing animals. It has previously been shown that the heat tolerance of male broiler chickens was improved by cyclically elevating egg incubation temperature. The embryonic thermal manipulation enhanced gene expression response in muscle ( P. major) when animals were heat challenged at slaughter age, 35 days post-hatch. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unknown. Here, we investigated the genome-wide distribution, in hypothalamus and muscle tissues, of two histone post-translational modifications, H3K4me3 and H3K27me3, known to contribute to environmental memory in eukaryotes. We found 785 H3K4me3 and 148 H3K27me3 differential peaks in the hypothalamus, encompassing genes involved in neurodevelopmental, metabolic, and gene regulation functions. Interestingly, few differences were identified in the muscle tissue for which differential gene expression was previously described. These results demonstrate that the response to embryonic thermal manipulation (TM) in chicken is mediated, at least in part, by epigenetic changes in the hypothalamus that may contribute to the later-life thermal acclimation.

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          Most cited references 31

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          BigWig and BigBed: enabling browsing of large distributed datasets

          Summary: BigWig and BigBed files are compressed binary indexed files containing data at several resolutions that allow the high-performance display of next-generation sequencing experiment results in the UCSC Genome Browser. The visualization is implemented using a multi-layered software approach that takes advantage of specific capabilities of web-based protocols and Linux and UNIX operating systems files, R trees and various indexing and compression tricks. As a result, only the data needed to support the current browser view is transmitted rather than the entire file, enabling fast remote access to large distributed data sets. Availability and implementation: Binaries for the BigWig and BigBed creation and parsing utilities may be downloaded at http://hgdownload.cse.ucsc.edu/admin/exe/linux.x86_64/. Source code for the creation and visualization software is freely available for non-commercial use at http://hgdownload.cse.ucsc.edu/admin/jksrc.zip, implemented in C and supported on Linux. The UCSC Genome Browser is available at http://genome.ucsc.edu Contact: ann@soe.ucsc.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary byte-level details of the BigWig and BigBed file formats are available at Bioinformatics online. For an in-depth description of UCSC data file formats and custom tracks, see http://genome.ucsc.edu/FAQ/FAQformat.html and http://genome.ucsc.edu/goldenPath/help/hgTracksHelp.html
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            Is H3K4me3 instructive for transcription activation?

            Tri-methylation of lysine 4 on histone H3 (H3K4me3) is a near-universal chromatin modification at the transcription start site of active genes in eukaryotes from yeast to man and its levels reflect the amount of transcription. Because of this association, H3K4me3 is often described as an 'activating' histone modification and assumed to have an instructive role in the transcription of genes, but the field is lacking a conserved mechanism to support this view. The overwhelming finding from genome-wide studies is that actually very little transcription changes upon removal of most H3K4me3 under steady-state or dynamically changing conditions, including at mammalian CpG island promoters. Instead, rather than a major role in instructing transcription, time-resolved experiments provide more evidence supporting the deposition of H3K4me3 into chromatin as a result of transcription, influencing processes such as memory of previous states, transcriptional consistency between cells in a population and transcription termination.
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              Growth, livability, and feed conversion of 1957 versus 2001 broilers when fed representative 1957 and 2001 broiler diets


                Author and article information

                Front Genet
                Front Genet
                Front. Genet.
                Frontiers in Genetics
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                26 November 2019
                : 10
                1BOA, INRA, Université de Tours , Nouzilly, France
                2PRC, CNRS, IFCE, INRA, Université de Tours , Nouzilly, France
                Author notes

                Edited by: Helene Kiefer, INRA Centre Jouy-en-Josas, France

                Reviewed by: Christoph Grunau, Université de Perpignan Via Domitia, France; Naoko Hattori, National Cancer Center Research Institute, Japan

                *Correspondence: Vincent Coustham, vincent.coustham@ 123456inra.fr

                This article was submitted to Epigenomics and Epigenetics, a section of the journal Frontiers in Genetics

                †These authors have contributed equally to this work

                Copyright © 2019 David, Vitorino Carvalho, Gimonnet, Brionne, Hennequet-Antier, Piégu, Crochet, Couroussé, Bordeau, Bigot, Collin and Coustham

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 51, Pages: 11, Words: 7339
                Funded by: Agence Nationale de la Recherche 10.13039/501100001665
                Award ID: ANR-15-CE02-0009-01
                Funded by: Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique 10.13039/501100006488
                Original Research


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