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      EANM/ESC guidelines for radionuclide imaging of cardiac function

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          Abstract

          Radionuclide imaging of cardiac function represents a number of well-validated techniques for accurate determination of right (RV) and left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) and LV volumes. These first European guidelines give recommendations for how and when to use first-pass and equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography, gated myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, gated PET, and studies with non-imaging devices for the evaluation of cardiac function. The items covered are presented in 11 sections: clinical indications, radiopharmaceuticals and dosimetry, study acquisition, RV EF, LV EF, LV volumes, LV regional function, LV diastolic function, reports and image display and reference values from the literature of RVEF, LVEF and LV volumes. If specific recommendations given cannot be based on evidence from original, scientific studies, referral is given to "prevailing or general consensus". The guidelines are designed to assist in the practice of referral to, performance, interpretation and reporting of nuclear cardiology studies for the evaluation of cardiac performance.

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          EANM/ESC procedural guidelines for myocardial perfusion imaging in nuclear cardiology.

          The European procedural guidelines for radionuclide imaging of myocardial perfusion and viability are presented in 13 sections covering patient information, radiopharmaceuticals, injected activities and dosimetry, stress tests, imaging protocols and acquisition, quality control and reconstruction methods, gated studies and attenuation-scatter compensation, data analysis, reports and image display, and positron emission tomography. If the specific recommendations given could not be based on evidence from original, scientific studies, we tried to express this state-of-art. The guidelines are designed to assist in the practice of performing, interpreting and reporting myocardial perfusion SPET. The guidelines do not discuss clinical indications, benefits or drawbacks of radionuclide myocardial imaging compared to non-nuclear techniques, nor do they cover cost benefit or cost effectiveness.
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            Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy: the evidence

            This review summarises the evidence for the role of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. It is the product of a consensus conference organised by the British Cardiac Society, the British Nuclear Cardiology Society and the British Nuclear Medicine Society and is endorsed by the Royal College of Physicians of London and the Royal College of Radiologists. It was used to inform the UK National Institute of Clinical Excellence in their appraisal of MPS in patients with chest pain and myocardial infarction. MPS is a well-established, non-invasive imaging technique with a large body of evidence to support its effectiveness in the diagnosis and management of angina and myocardial infarction. It is more accurate than the exercise ECG in detecting myocardial ischaemia and it is the single most powerful technique for predicting future coronary events. The high diagnostic accuracy of MPS allows reliable risk stratification and guides the selection of patients for further interventions, such as revascularisation. This in turn allows more appropriate utilisation of resources, with the potential for both improved clinical outcomes and greater cost-effectiveness. Evidence from modelling and observational studies supports the enhanced cost-effectiveness associated with MPS use. In patients presenting with stable or acute chest pain, strategies of investigation involving MPS are more cost-effective than those not using the technique. MPS also has particular advantages over alternative techniques in the management of a number of patient subgroups, including women, the elderly and those with diabetes, and its use will have a favourable impact on cost-effectiveness in these groups. MPS is already an integral part of many clinical guidelines for the investigation and management of angina and myocardial infarction. However, the technique is underutilised in the UK, as judged by the inappropriately long waiting times and by comparison with the numbers of revascularisations and coronary angiograms performed. Furthermore, MPS activity levels in this country fall far short of those in comparable European countries, with about half as many scans being undertaken per year. Currently, the number of MPS studies performed annually in the UK is 1,200/million population/year. We estimate the real need to be 4,000/million/year. The current average waiting time is 20 weeks and we recommend that clinically appropriate upper limits of waiting time are 6 weeks for routine studies and 1 week for urgent studies.
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              Incremental prognostic value of post-stress left ventricular ejection fraction and volume by gated myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography.

              The incremental prognostic value of post-stress left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) and volume over perfusion has not been investigated. We identified 1680 consecutive patients who underwent rest Tl-201/stress Tc-99m sestamibi gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and who were followed-up for 569+/-106 days. Receiver-operator characteristics analysis defined an EF 70 mL, and an end-diastolic volume >120 mL as optimal thresholds, yielding moderate sensitivity and high specificity in the prediction of cardiac death. Patients with an EF> or = 45% had mortality rates 70 mL and only mild/moderate perfusion abnormalities had high death rates (8.2%/year; P 70 mL had high death rates (7.9%/year; P<0.02). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression showed that perfusion variables and ESV were independent predictors of overall coronary events, whereas EF and ESV demonstrated incremental prognostic values over prescan and perfusion information in predicting cardiac death and cardiac death or myocardial infarction. Post-stress EF and ESV by gated-SPECT have incremental prognostic values over prescan and perfusion information in predicting cardiac death, and they provide clinically useful risk stratification.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
                Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                1619-7070
                1619-7089
                April 2008
                January 26 2008
                April 2008
                : 35
                : 4
                : 851-885
                Article
                10.1007/s00259-007-0694-9
                18224320
                © 2008

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