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      Iron and Oxidative Stress in Renal Insufficiency

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: Iron (Fe) can cause tissue injury and oxidative stress by catalyzing hydroxyl radical production and lipid peroxidation. Intravenous (i.v.) Fe preparations are routinely administered to treat anemia in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF), a condition marked by oxidative stress and inflammation. In an earlier study, we showed that iron overload augments oxidative stress in the cardiovascular tissues of CRF rats. This study was designed to expand these observations to other major organs. Methods: Rats were randomized into CRF (5/6 nephrectomized) and sham-operated control (CTL) groups. Each group was subdivided into Fe-loaded (single i.v. injection of iron dextran complex, 0.5 g/kg) and placebo-treated subgroups. After 13 weeks, systolic blood pressure, blood hemoglobin (Hb), plasma Fe concentration, lipid peroxidation products, superoxide generating enzyme, NAD(P)H oxidase, and antioxidant enzymes were determined. Results: Systolic blood pressure was equally elevated and creatinine clearance was equally reduced in both CRF groups. Fe administration raised Hb, serum Fe and transferrin saturation in both CRF and CTL groups. The plasma concentration of lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde, was increased by Fe injection in CRF rats but not the control group. Renal tissue abundance of gp91<sup>phox</sup> subunit of NAD(P)H oxidase was elevated in the untreated CRF group and was partially reduced in the iron dextran-treated CRF group. Tissue abundance of the antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) were decreased in both untreated and iron dextran-treated CRF groups. Conclusion: CRF resulted in marked SOD, CAT and GPX deficiencies. A single i.v. administration of iron dextran in rats with CRF induced oxidative stress as measured by increased lipid peroxidation products and decreases in antioxidant enzymes.

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          Most cited references 19

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          The elephant in uremia: oxidant stress as a unifying concept of cardiovascular disease in uremia.

          Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in uremic patients. In large cross-sectional studies of dialysis patients, traditional cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension and hypercholesterolemia have been found to have low predictive power, while markers of inflammation and malnutrition are highly correlated with cardiovascular mortality. However, the pathophysiology of the disease process that links uremia, inflammation, and malnutrition with increased cardiovascular complications is not well understood. We hereby propose the hypothesis that increased oxidative stress and its sequalae is a major contributor to increased atherosclerosis and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality found in uremia. This hypothesis is based on studies that conclusively demonstrate an increased oxidative burden in uremic patients, before and particularly after renal replacement therapies, as evidenced by higher concentrations of multiple biomarkers of oxidative stress. This hypothesis also provides a framework to explain the link that activated phagocytes provide between oxidative stress and inflammation (from infectious and non-infections causes) and the synergistic role that malnutrition (as reflected by low concentrations of albumin and/or antioxidants) contributes to the increased burden of cardiovascular disease in uremia. We further propose that retained uremic solutes such as beta-2 microglobulin, advanced glycosylated end products (AGE), cysteine, and homocysteine, which are substrates for oxidative injury, further contribute to the pro-atherogenic milieu of uremia. Dialytic therapy, which acts to reduce the concentration of oxidized substrates, improves the redox balance. However, processes related to dialytic therapy, such as the prolonged use of catheters for vascular access and the use of bioincompatible dialysis membranes, can contribute to a pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidative state and thus to a pro-atherogenic state. Anti-oxidative therapeutic strategies for patients with uremia are in their very early stages; nonetheless, early studies demonstrate the potential for significant efficacy in reducing cardiovascular complications.
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            Iron therapy, advanced oxidation protein products, and carotid artery intima-media thickness in end-stage renal disease.

            Increased common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT) is a marker of early atherosclerosis. Low-grade inflammation is associated with the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Low-grade inflammation and increased CCA-IMT are observed in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Oxidative stress is involved in uremia-related inflammation. Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) are markers of oxidant-mediated protein damage in ESRD. Intravenous iron given to patients on hemodialysis (HD) might induce oxidative stress. We investigated the relationships between AOPP, iron therapy, and CCA-IMT in stable HD patients. Plasma AOPP and blood chemistry, including iron status, were analyzed in a cohort of 79 ESRD patients on HD. Measurements of CCA-IMT and CCA diameter, as assessed by B-mode ultrasonography, were obtained in 60 patients. AOPP levels were elevated in ESRD patients, and in univariate (r=0.42, P<0.0001) and multivariate analyses (r=0.38, P<0.001), they correlated with serum ferritin and with the intravenous iron dose received during the 12 months preceding the study (ferritin, P<0001; AOPP, P<0.01). Univariate and multivariate analyses identified the AOPP concentration as being significantly associated with CCA-IMT (P=0.0197) and CCA wall-to-lumen ratio (r=0.560, P<0.0001). Independently of AOPP concentration, cumulative iron dose was positively related to CCA-IMT (P=0.015) in patients <60 years. In ESRD patients, CCA-IMT and CCA wall-to-lumen ratio were associated with plasma AOPP, serum ferritin, and the annual intravenous iron dose administered. These findings support the concept of a role of oxidative stress in the early atherosclerosis of ESRD patients, which may be increased by the usually recommended doses of intravenous iron.
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              Oxidative stress and dysregulation of superoxide dismutase and NADPH oxidase in renal insufficiency.

              Chronic renal failure (CRF) is associated with oxidative stress, the mechanism of which remains uncertain. Superoxide is the primary oxygen free radical produced in the body, NAD(P)H oxidase is the major source of superoxide production and superoxide dismutase (SOD) is responsible for removal of superoxide. We hypothesized that CRF-induced oxidative stress may be due to increased production and/or decreased dismutation of superoxide. Immunodetectable superoxide dismutase isoforms (Cu Zn SOD and Mn SOD), as well as, NAD(P)H oxidase (gp91 phox subunit) proteins and xanthine oxidase (XO) activity were determined in the kidney and liver of CRF (5/6 nephrectomized) and sham-operated control rats. Subgroups of animals were treated with SOD-mimetic drug, tempol and blood pressure and urinary nitric oxide metabolites (NOx) were monitored. The CRF group showed marked down-regulations of CuZn SOD and Mn SOD and significant up-regulation of gp91 phox in the liver and kidney, which are among the metabolically most active tissues. In contrast, XO activity was depressed in both tissues. Arterial pressure and nitrotyrosine abundance were elevated while urinary NOx excretion was depressed, pointing to increased NO inactivation by superoxide and decreased NO availability in CRF animals. Administration of SOD-mimetic agent, tempol, for one week, ameliorated hypertension, reduced nitrotyrosine abundance and increased urinary NOx excretion in the CRF animals. CRF is associated with depressed SOD and elevated NAD(P)H oxidase expression, which can contribute to oxidative stress by increasing superoxide. This is evidenced by favorable response to administration of SOD-mimetic drug, tempol, and increased nitrotyrosine that is the footprint of NO interaction with superoxide.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                AJN
                Am J Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.0250-8095
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                0250-8095
                1421-9670
                2004
                December 2004
                28 February 2005
                : 24
                : 6
                : 569-575
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Hospital, Seoul, Korea; bDivision of Nephrology and Hypertension, University of California, Irvine, Calif., USA
                Article
                82201 Am J Nephrol 2004;24:569–575
                10.1159/000082201
                15550752
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, References: 39, Pages: 7
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/82201
                Categories
                Original Report: Laboratory Investigation

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