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      Purification and characterization of a surfactin-like molecule produced by Bacillus sp. H2O-1 and its antagonistic effect against sulfate reducing bacteria

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          Abstract

          Background

          Bacillus sp. H2O-1, isolated from the connate water of a Brazilian reservoir, produces an antimicrobial substance (denoted as AMS H2O-1) that is active against sulfate reducing bacteria, which are the major bacterial group responsible for biogenic souring and biocorrosion in petroleum reservoirs. Thus, the use of AMS H2O-1 for sulfate reducing bacteria control in the petroleum industry is a promising alternative to chemical biocides. However, prior to the large-scale production of AMS H2O-1 for industrial applications, its chemical structure must be elucidated. This study also analyzed the changes in the wetting properties of different surfaces conditioned with AMS H2O-1 and demonstrated the effect of AMS H2O-1 on sulfate reducing bacteria cells.

          Results

          A lipopeptide mixture from AMS H2O-1 was partially purified on a silica gel column and identified via mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). It comprises four major components that range in size from 1007 to 1049 Da. The lipid moiety contains linear and branched β-hydroxy fatty acids that range in length from C13 to C16. The peptide moiety contains seven amino acids identified as Glu-Leu-Leu-Val-Asp-Leu-Leu.

          Transmission electron microscopy revealed cell membrane alteration of sulfate reducing bacteria after AMS H2O-1 treatment at the minimum inhibitory concentration (5 μg/ml). Cytoplasmic electron dense inclusions were observed in treated cells but not in untreated cells. AMS H2O-1 enhanced the osmosis of sulfate reducing bacteria cells and caused the leakage of the intracellular contents. In addition, contact angle measurements indicated that different surfaces conditioned by AMS H2O-1 were less hydrophobic and more electron-donor than untreated surfaces.

          Conclusion

          AMS H2O-1 is a mixture of four surfactin-like homologues, and its biocidal activity and surfactant properties suggest that this compound may be a good candidate for sulfate reducing bacteria control. Thus, it is a potential alternative to the chemical biocides or surface coating agents currently used to prevent SRB growth in petroleum industries.

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          Most cited references 59

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          Bacillus lipopeptides: versatile weapons for plant disease biocontrol.

          In the context of biocontrol of plant diseases, the three families of Bacillus lipopeptides - surfactins, iturins and fengycins were at first mostly studied for their antagonistic activity for a wide range of potential phytopathogens, including bacteria, fungi and oomycetes. Recent investigations have shed light on the fact that these lipopeptides can also influence the ecological fitness of the producing strain in terms of root colonization (and thereby persistence in the rhizosphere) and also have a key role in the beneficial interaction of Bacillus species with plants by stimulating host defence mechanisms. The different structural traits and physico-chemical properties of these effective surface- and membrane-active amphiphilic biomolecules explain their involvement in most of the mechanisms developed by bacteria for the biocontrol of different plant pathogens.
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            The ecology and biotechnology of sulphate-reducing bacteria.

            Sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are anaerobic microorganisms that use sulphate as a terminal electron acceptor in, for example, the degradation of organic compounds. They are ubiquitous in anoxic habitats, where they have an important role in both the sulphur and carbon cycles. SRB can cause a serious problem for industries, such as the offshore oil industry, because of the production of sulphide, which is highly reactive, corrosive and toxic. However, these organisms can also be beneficial by removing sulphate and heavy metals from waste streams. Although SRB have been studied for more than a century, it is only with the recent emergence of new molecular biological and genomic techniques that we have begun to obtain detailed information on their way of life.
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              Bacillus subtilis antibiotics: structures, syntheses and specific functions.

               Torsten Stein (2005)
              The endospore-forming rhizobacterium Bacillus subtilis- the model system for Gram-positive organisms, is able to produce more than two dozen antibiotics with an amazing variety of structures. The produced anti-microbial active compounds include predominantly peptides that are either ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified (lantibiotics and lantibiotic-like peptides) or non-ribosomally generated, as well as a couple of non-peptidic compounds such as polyketides, an aminosugar, and a phospholipid. Here I summarize the structures of all known B. subtilis antibiotics, their biochemistry and genetic analysis of their biosyntheses. An updated summary of well-studied antibiotic regulation pathways is given. Furthermore, current findings are resumed that show roles for distinct B. subtilis antibiotics beyond the "pure" anti-microbial action: Non-ribosomally produced lipopeptides are involved in biofilm and swarming development, lantibiotics function as pheromones in quorum-sensing, and a "killing factor" effectuates programmed cell death in sister cells. A discussion of how these antibiotics may contribute to the survival of B. subtilis in its natural environment is given.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BMC Microbiol
                BMC Microbiol
                BMC Microbiology
                BioMed Central
                1471-2180
                2012
                7 November 2012
                : 12
                : 252
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Instituto de Microbiologia Paulo de Góes, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil
                [2 ]Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil
                [3 ]Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil
                [4 ]Instituto de Química de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
                [5 ]Laboratório de Genética Microbiana, Instituto de Microbiologia Prof. Paulo de Góes, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Bloco I, Ilha do Fundão, CEP 21941-590, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil
                Article
                1471-2180-12-252
                10.1186/1471-2180-12-252
                3577442
                23131170
                Copyright ©2012 Korenblum et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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                Research Article

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