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      Nano-Graphene Oxide for Cellular Imaging and Drug Delivery

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          Abstract

          Two-dimensional graphene offers interesting electronic, thermal and mechanical properties that are currently explored for advanced electronics, membranes and composites. Here we synthesize and explore the biological application of nano-graphene oxide NGO, single-layer graphene oxide sheets down to a few nanometers in lateral width. We develop functionalization chemistry to impart solubility and compatibility of NGO in biological environments. We obtain size separated pegylated NGO sheets that are soluble in buffers and serum without agglomeration. The NGO sheets are found to be photoluminescent in the visible and infrared regions. The intrinsic photoluminescence of NGO is used for live cell imaging in the near-infrared with little background. We found that simple physisorption via pi-stacking can be used for loading doxorubicin, a widely used cancer drug onto NGO functionalized with antibody for selective cancer cell killing in vitro. Owing to the small size, intrinsic optical properties, large specific surface area,low cost, and useful non-covalent interactions with aromatic drug molecules, NGO is a promising new material for biological and medical applications.

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          Most cited references 4

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          Quantum yield heterogeneities of aqueous single-wall carbon nanotube suspensions.

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            Determination of the concentration of single-walled carbon nanotubes in aqueous dispersions using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy.

            Stable, homogeneous, aqueous dispersions of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are prepared by nonspecific physical adsorption of surfactants enhanced by sonication. Upon centrifugation, supernatant and precipitate phases are obtained. The initial weights of the SWNTs and the surfactant are divided between these two phases, and the respective SWNT concentration in each phase is unknown. The focus of this work is on the determination of the true concentration of raw, exfoliated HiPCO SWNTs in the supernatant phase. A UV-visible absorption-based approach is suggested for a direct measurement of the SWNT and the surfactant concentration in the supernatant. UV-visible absorbance spectra of SWNTs-surfactant dispersions and surfactants alone reveal that the intensity of a certain peak, attributed to the pi-plasmon resonance absorption, is unaffected by the presence of most surfactants. A calibration plot is then made by monitoring the intensity of the peak as a function of the true concentration of the exfoliated SWNTs. Thus, we are able to determine the unknown concentration of surfactant-dispersed HiPCO SWNTs in the supernatant solution, simply by measuring its optical absorbance. Moreover, we can now calculate the surfactant efficiency in dispersing SWNTs. Cryogenic-transmission electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis techniques are used for the characterization of these dispersions and to complement the UV-visible measurements.
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              Fluorescence efficiency of individual carbon nanotubes.

              The luminescence efficiency of individual single-walled carbon nanotubes was determined by comparing the fluorescence from individual nanotubes to single CdTe/ZnS quantum dots with a well-defined fluorescence quantum yield (QY). The single carbon nanotube QY was determined to be 3 +/- 1%, nearly 100 times greater than values previously reported for ensembles. The intrinsic nanotube QY is potentially much higher than previously believed and appears lower in ensembles due to defective nanotubes and residual bundles.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                25 August 2008
                Article
                0808.3396

                http://arxiv.org/licenses/nonexclusive-distrib/1.0/

                Custom metadata
                cond-mat.mtrl-sci

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