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      Recent origin and rapid speciation of Neotropical orchids in the world's richest plant biodiversity hotspot


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          • The Andean mountains of South America are the most species‐rich biodiversity hotspot worldwide with c. 15% of the world's plant species, in only 1% of the world's land surface. Orchids are a key element of the Andean flora, and one of the most prominent components of the Neotropical epiphyte diversity, yet very little is known about their origin and diversification.

          • We address this knowledge gap by inferring the biogeographical history and diversification dynamics of the two largest Neotropical orchid groups (Cymbidieae and Pleurothallidinae), using two unparalleled, densely sampled orchid phylogenies (including more than 400 newly generated DNA sequences), comparative phylogenetic methods, geological and biological datasets.

          • We find that the majority of Andean orchid lineages only originated in the last 20–15 million yr. Andean lineages are derived from lowland Amazonian ancestors, with additional contributions from Central America and the Antilles. Species diversification is correlated with Andean orogeny, and multiple migrations and recolonizations across the Andes indicate that mountains do not constrain orchid dispersal over long timescales.

          • Our study sheds new light on the timing and geography of a major Neotropical diversification, and suggests that mountain uplift promotes species diversification across all elevational zones.

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          Hyperdominance in the Amazonian tree flora.

          The vast extent of the Amazon Basin has historically restricted the study of its tree communities to the local and regional scales. Here, we provide empirical data on the commonness, rarity, and richness of lowland tree species across the entire Amazon Basin and Guiana Shield (Amazonia), collected in 1170 tree plots in all major forest types. Extrapolations suggest that Amazonia harbors roughly 16,000 tree species, of which just 227 (1.4%) account for half of all trees. Most of these are habitat specialists and only dominant in one or two regions of the basin. We discuss some implications of the finding that a small group of species--less diverse than the North American tree flora--accounts for half of the world's most diverse tree community.
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            Model selection in historical biogeography reveals that founder-event speciation is a crucial process in Island Clades.

            Founder-event speciation, where a rare jump dispersal event founds a new genetically isolated lineage, has long been considered crucial by many historical biogeographers, but its importance is disputed within the vicariance school. Probabilistic modeling of geographic range evolution creates the potential to test different biogeographical models against data using standard statistical model choice procedures, as long as multiple models are available. I re-implement the Dispersal-Extinction-Cladogenesis (DEC) model of LAGRANGE in the R package BioGeoBEARS, and modify it to create a new model, DEC + J, which adds founder-event speciation, the importance of which is governed by a new free parameter, [Formula: see text]. The identifiability of DEC and DEC + J is tested on data sets simulated under a wide range of macroevolutionary models where geography evolves jointly with lineage birth/death events. The results confirm that DEC and DEC + J are identifiable even though these models ignore the fact that molecular phylogenies are missing many cladogenesis and extinction events. The simulations also indicate that DEC will have substantially increased errors in ancestral range estimation and parameter inference when the true model includes + J. DEC and DEC + J are compared on 13 empirical data sets drawn from studies of island clades. Likelihood-ratio tests indicate that all clades reject DEC, and AICc model weights show large to overwhelming support for DEC + J, for the first time verifying the importance of founder-event speciation in island clades via statistical model choice. Under DEC + J, ancestral nodes are usually estimated to have ranges occupying only one island, rather than the widespread ancestors often favored by DEC. These results indicate that the assumptions of historical biogeography models can have large impacts on inference and require testing and comparison with statistical methods. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
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              Neotropical Floristic Diversity: Phytogeographical Connections Between Central and South America, Pleistocene Climatic Fluctuations, or an Accident of the Andean Orogeny?


                Author and article information

                New Phytol
                New Phytol
                The New Phytologist
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                20 June 2017
                July 2017
                : 215
                : 2 ( doiID: 10.1111/nph.2017.215.issue-2 )
                : 891-905
                [ 1 ] Identification and Naming Department Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Richmond TW9 3AB UK
                [ 2 ] Systematic Botany and Mycology University of Munich (LMU) 67 Menzinger Str. Munich 80638 Germany
                [ 3 ] CNRS UMR 5554 Institut des Sciences de l'Evolution (Université de Montpellier) Place Eugène Bataillon 34095 Montpellier France
                [ 4 ] Lankester Botanical Garden University of Costa Rica PO Box 302‐7050 Cartago Costa Rica
                [ 5 ] Naturalis Biodiversity Center Leiden 2333 CR the Netherlands
                [ 6 ] Division of Ecology, Evolution, and Genetics Research School of Biology The Australian National University Canberra ACT 2601 Australia
                [ 7 ] Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences University of Gothenburg 413 19 Gothenburg Sweden
                [ 8 ] Department of Computational Biology, Biophore University of Lausanne 1015 Lausanne Switzerland
                [ 9 ] Gothenburg Global Biodiversity Centre Box 461 SE‐405 30 Göteborg Sweden
                [ 10 ] Gothenburg Botanical Garden Carl Skottsbergs gata 22A 41319 Gothenburg Sweden
                Author notes
                [*] [* ] Authors for correspondence:

                Oscar Alejandro Pérez‐Escobar

                Tel: +44 020 8332 5178

                Email: oapereze@ 123456yahoo.com

                Guillaume Chomicki

                Tel: +49 89 17861 285

                Email: guillaume.chomicki@ 123456gmail.com


                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                NPH14629 2017-23782
                © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust

                This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 0, Pages: 15, Words: 10643
                Funded by: Colombian National Science Foundation (COLCIENCIAS) scholarship
                Funded by: German Science Foundation grant
                Award ID: RE 603/20
                Funded by: Marie Curie grant (BIOMME project)
                Award ID: IOF‐627684
                Funded by: Agence Nationale de la Recherche (CEBA)
                Award ID: ANR‐10‐LABX‐25‐01
                Funded by: Alberta Mennega Foundation
                Funded by: National Institute for Mathematical and Biological Synthesis
                Funded by: National Science Foundation (NSF)
                Award ID: EFJ0832858
                Funded by: University of Tennessee
                Funded by: Knoxville
                Funded by: Discovery Early Career Researcher Award
                Award ID: DE150101773
                Funded by: Australian Research Council
                Funded by: Australian National University
                Funded by: Swedish Research Council
                Award ID: 2015‐04748
                Funded by: European Research Council
                Award ID: 331024
                Funded by: European Union's Seventh Framework Program
                Award ID: FP/2007‐2013
                Funded by: Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research
                Funded by: Wallenberg Academy Fellowship
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                Custom metadata
                July 2017
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_NLMPMC version:5.1.8 mode:remove_FC converted:30.08.2017

                Plant science & Botany
                andes,biodiversity hotspots,biogeography,diversification,molecular clocks,mountain building,neotropics,orchidaceae


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