The characterization of urinary proteins is an important tool to identify disease-related biomarkers and to better understand renal physiology. Expression of urinary proteins has been previously studied by Western blotting and other immunological methods. The scope of such studies, however, is limited to previously identified proteins for which specific antibodies are existed. We used proteomic analysis to identify proteins and to construct a proteome map for Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat urine isolated by ultracentrifugation. Urinary proteins were separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE) and visualized by silver staining. Proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), followed by peptide mass fingerprinting using the NCBI protein database. A total of 350 protein spots were visualized. From 250 excised spots, 111 protein components were identified including transporters, transport regulators, chaperones, enzymes, signaling proteins, cytoskeletal proteins, pheromone-binding proteins, receptors, and novel gene products. The presence of a number of these identified proteins was unexpected and had not previously been identified in the urine. 2-D Western blot analyses for randomly selected proteins (ezrin, HSP70, β- and γ-actin, Rho-GDI, and l-myc) clearly confirmed the proteomic identification. Several potential posttranslational modifications were predicted by bioinformatic analyses. These data indicate that a large complement of expected and unexpected urinary proteins can be simultaneously studied by proteomic analysis. This approach may lead to better understanding of renal physiology and pathophysiology, and to biomarker discovery.