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MicroRNAs in Ewing Sarcoma

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      Abstract

      MicroRNAs (miRs) have emerged recently as important regulators of gene expression in the cell. Frequently dysregulated in cancer, miRs have shed new light on molecular mechanisms of oncogenesis, and have generated substantial interest as biomarkers, and novel therapeutic agents and targets. Recently, a number of studies have examined miR biology in Ewing sarcoma. Findings indicate that alterations in miR expression in Ewing Sarcoma are widespread, involve both EWS/Ets oncogenic fusion-dependent and independent mechanisms, and contribute to malignant phenotypes. miRs with prognostic potential have been identified, and several preclinical studies suggest that miR manipulation could be therapeutically useful in this aggressive disease. These and future studies of miR biology stand to expand our understanding of Ewing sarcoma pathogenesis, and may identify new biomarkers and treatment options.

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      Most cited references 50

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        Small RNAs of 20-30 nucleotides can target both chromatin and transcripts, and thereby keep both the genome and the transcriptome under extensive surveillance. Recent progress in high-throughput sequencing has uncovered an astounding landscape of small RNAs in eukaryotic cells. Various small RNAs of distinctive characteristics have been found and can be classified into three classes based on their biogenesis mechanism and the type of Argonaute protein that they are associated with: microRNAs (miRNAs), endogenous small interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs or esiRNAs) and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). This Review summarizes our current knowledge of how these intriguing molecules are generated in animal cells.
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          Many roads to maturity: microRNA biogenesis pathways and their regulation.

          MicroRNAs are important regulators of gene expression that control both physiological and pathological processes such as development and cancer. Although their mode of action has attracted great attention, the principles governing their expression and activity are only beginning to emerge. Recent studies have introduced a paradigm shift in our understanding of the microRNA biogenesis pathway, which was previously believed to be universal to all microRNAs. Maturation steps specific to individual microRNAs have been uncovered, and these offer a plethora of regulatory options after transcription with multiple proteins affecting microRNA processing efficiency. Here we review the recent advances in knowledge of the microRNA biosynthesis pathways and discuss their impact on post-transcriptional microRNA regulation during tumour development.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            1Medical Scientist Training Program, University of Colorado Denver Denver, CO, USA
            2Cancer Biology Graduate Program, University of Colorado Denver Denver, CO, USA
            3Anschutz Medical Campus, University of Colorado Denver Denver, CO, USA
            4Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders, University of Colorado Denver Aurora, CO, USA
            5Departments of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Denver Denver, CO, USA
            6Children’s Hospital Colorado Aurora, CO, USA
            7Department of Pathology, University of Colorado Denver Denver, CO, USA
            Author notes

            Edited by: Stephen Lessnick, University of Utah, USA

            Reviewed by: William A. May, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, USA; Alejandro Sweet-Cordero, Stanford University, USA

            *Correspondence: Paul Jedlicka, Department of Pathology, Anschutz Medical Campus, University of Colorado Denver, MS 8104, Aurora, CO 80045, USA. e-mail: paul.jedlicka@ 123456ucdenver.edu

            Layne Dylla and Colin Moore have contributed equally to this work.

            This article was submitted to Frontiers in Pediatric Oncology, a specialty of Frontiers in Oncology.

            Journal
            Front Oncol
            Front Oncol
            Front. Oncol.
            Frontiers in Oncology
            Frontiers Media S.A.
            2234-943X
            28 March 2013
            2013
            : 3
            23543617
            3610014
            10.3389/fonc.2013.00065
            Copyright © 2013 Dylla, Moore and Jedlicka.

            This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in other forums, provided the original authors and source are credited and subject to any copyright notices concerning any third-party graphics etc.

            Counts
            Figures: 1, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 48, Pages: 6, Words: 5533
            Categories
            Oncology
            Mini Review

            Oncology & Radiotherapy

            therapy, micrornas, sarcoma, ewing sarcoma, pathogenesis, prognosis

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