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      MicroRNAs in Ewing Sarcoma

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          MicroRNAs (miRs) have emerged recently as important regulators of gene expression in the cell. Frequently dysregulated in cancer, miRs have shed new light on molecular mechanisms of oncogenesis, and have generated substantial interest as biomarkers, and novel therapeutic agents and targets. Recently, a number of studies have examined miR biology in Ewing sarcoma. Findings indicate that alterations in miR expression in Ewing Sarcoma are widespread, involve both EWS/Ets oncogenic fusion-dependent and independent mechanisms, and contribute to malignant phenotypes. miRs with prognostic potential have been identified, and several preclinical studies suggest that miR manipulation could be therapeutically useful in this aggressive disease. These and future studies of miR biology stand to expand our understanding of Ewing sarcoma pathogenesis, and may identify new biomarkers and treatment options.

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          Most cited references 50

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          MicroRNAs: target recognition and regulatory functions.

           David Bartel (2009)
          MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous approximately 23 nt RNAs that play important gene-regulatory roles in animals and plants by pairing to the mRNAs of protein-coding genes to direct their posttranscriptional repression. This review outlines the current understanding of miRNA target recognition in animals and discusses the widespread impact of miRNAs on both the expression and evolution of protein-coding genes.
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            Biogenesis of small RNAs in animals.

            Small RNAs of 20-30 nucleotides can target both chromatin and transcripts, and thereby keep both the genome and the transcriptome under extensive surveillance. Recent progress in high-throughput sequencing has uncovered an astounding landscape of small RNAs in eukaryotic cells. Various small RNAs of distinctive characteristics have been found and can be classified into three classes based on their biogenesis mechanism and the type of Argonaute protein that they are associated with: microRNAs (miRNAs), endogenous small interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs or esiRNAs) and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). This Review summarizes our current knowledge of how these intriguing molecules are generated in animal cells.
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              Many roads to maturity: microRNA biogenesis pathways and their regulation.

              MicroRNAs are important regulators of gene expression that control both physiological and pathological processes such as development and cancer. Although their mode of action has attracted great attention, the principles governing their expression and activity are only beginning to emerge. Recent studies have introduced a paradigm shift in our understanding of the microRNA biogenesis pathway, which was previously believed to be universal to all microRNAs. Maturation steps specific to individual microRNAs have been uncovered, and these offer a plethora of regulatory options after transcription with multiple proteins affecting microRNA processing efficiency. Here we review the recent advances in knowledge of the microRNA biosynthesis pathways and discuss their impact on post-transcriptional microRNA regulation during tumour development.

                Author and article information

                1Medical Scientist Training Program, University of Colorado Denver Denver, CO, USA
                2Cancer Biology Graduate Program, University of Colorado Denver Denver, CO, USA
                3Anschutz Medical Campus, University of Colorado Denver Denver, CO, USA
                4Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders, University of Colorado Denver Aurora, CO, USA
                5Departments of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Denver Denver, CO, USA
                6Children’s Hospital Colorado Aurora, CO, USA
                7Department of Pathology, University of Colorado Denver Denver, CO, USA
                Author notes

                Edited by: Stephen Lessnick, University of Utah, USA

                Reviewed by: William A. May, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, USA; Alejandro Sweet-Cordero, Stanford University, USA

                *Correspondence: Paul Jedlicka, Department of Pathology, Anschutz Medical Campus, University of Colorado Denver, MS 8104, Aurora, CO 80045, USA. e-mail: paul.jedlicka@

                Layne Dylla and Colin Moore have contributed equally to this work.

                This article was submitted to Frontiers in Pediatric Oncology, a specialty of Frontiers in Oncology.

                Front Oncol
                Front Oncol
                Front. Oncol.
                Frontiers in Oncology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                28 March 2013
                : 3
                Copyright © 2013 Dylla, Moore and Jedlicka.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in other forums, provided the original authors and source are credited and subject to any copyright notices concerning any third-party graphics etc.

                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 48, Pages: 6, Words: 5533
                Mini Review

                Oncology & Radiotherapy

                therapy, micrornas, sarcoma, ewing sarcoma, pathogenesis, prognosis


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