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      Paracrine senescence of human endometrial mesenchymal stem cells: a role for the insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3


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          Stress-induced premature cell senescence is well recognized to be accompanied by emerging the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Secreted SASP factors can promote the senescence of normal neighboring cells through autocrine/paracrine pathways and regulate the senescence response, as well. Regarding human endometrium-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MESCs), the SASP regulation mechanisms as well as paracrine activity of senescent cells have not been studied yet. Here, we examined the role of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) in the paracrine senescence induction in young MESCs. The H 2O 2-induced premature senescence of MESCs led to increased IGFBP3 in conditioned media (CM). The inhibitory analysis of both MAPK and PI3K signaling pathways showed that IGFBP3 releasing from senescent cells is mainly regulated by PI3K/Akt pathway activity. IGFBP3 appears to be an important senescence-mediating factor as its immunodepletion from the senescent CM weakened the pro-senescent effect of CM on young MESCs and promoted their growth. In contrast, young MESCs acquired the senescence phenotype in response to simultaneous addition of recombinant IGFBP3 (rIGFBP3). The mechanism of extracellular IGFBP3 internalization was also revealed. The present study is the first to demonstrate a significant role of extracellular IGFBP3 in paracrine senescence induction of young MESCs.

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          Inhibition of mTORC1 leads to MAPK pathway activation through a PI3K-dependent feedback loop in human cancer.

          Numerous studies have established a causal link between aberrant mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation and tumorigenesis, indicating that mTOR inhibition may have therapeutic potential. In this study, we show that rapamycin and its analogs activate the MAPK pathway in human cancer, in what represents a novel mTORC1-MAPK feedback loop. We found that tumor samples from patients with biopsy-accessible solid tumors of advanced disease treated with RAD001, a rapamycin derivative, showed an administration schedule-dependent increase in activation of the MAPK pathway. RAD001 treatment also led to MAPK activation in a mouse model of prostate cancer. We further show that rapamycin-induced MAPK activation occurs in both normal cells and cancer cells lines and that this feedback loop depends on an S6K-PI3K-Ras pathway. Significantly, pharmacological inhibition of the MAPK pathway enhanced the antitumoral effect of mTORC1 inhibition by rapamycin in cancer cells in vitro and in a xenograft mouse model. Taken together, our findings identify MAPK activation as a consequence of mTORC1 inhibition and underscore the potential of a combined therapeutic approach with mTORC1 and MAPK inhibitors, currently employed as single agents in the clinic, for the treatment of human cancers.
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              Senescence-messaging secretome: SMS-ing cellular stress.

              Oncogene-induced cellular senescence constitutes a strong anti-proliferative response, which can be set in motion following either oncogene activation or loss of tumour suppressor signalling. It serves to limit the expansion of early neoplastic cells and as such is a potent cancer-protective response to oncogenic events. Recently emerging evidence points to a crucial role in oncogene-induced cellular senescence for the 'senescence-messaging secretome' or SMS, setting the stage for cross-talk between senescent cells and their environment. How are such signals integrated into a coordinated response and what are the implications of this unexpected finding?

                Author and article information

                Aging (Albany NY)
                Aging (Albany NY)
                Aging (Albany NY)
                Impact Journals
                31 January 2020
                17 January 2020
                : 12
                : 2
                : 1987-2004
                [1 ]Department of Intracellular Signaling and Transport, Institute of Cytology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg 194064, Russia
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Elena Burova; email: lenbur87@mail.ru
                102737 102737
                Copyright © 2020 Vassilieva et al.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                : 19 November 2019
                : 02 January 2020
                Research Paper

                Cell biology
                endometrial stem cells,paracrine senescence,secretome,igfbp3,endocytosis
                Cell biology
                endometrial stem cells, paracrine senescence, secretome, igfbp3, endocytosis


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