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      TRADD–TRAF2 and TRADD–FADD Interactions Define Two Distinct TNF Receptor 1 Signal Transduction Pathways

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      Cell

      Elsevier BV

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          Abstract

          Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) can induce apoptosis and activate NF-kappa B through signaling cascades emanating from TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1). TRADD is a TNFR1-associated signal transducer that is involved in activating both pathways. Here we show that TRADD directly interacts with TRAF2 and FADD, signal transducers that activate NF-kappa B and induce apoptosis, respectively. A TRAF2 mutant lacking its N-terminal RING finger domain is a dominant-negative inhibitor of TNF-mediated NF-kappa B activation, but does not affect TNF-induced apoptosis. Conversely, a FADD mutant lacking its N-terminal 79 amino acids is a dominant-negative inhibitor of TNF-induced apoptosis, but does not inhibit NF-kappa B activation. Thus, these two TNFR1-TRADD signaling cascades appear to bifurcate at TRADD.

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          Most cited references 30

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          FADD, a novel death domain-containing protein, interacts with the death domain of Fas and initiates apoptosis.

          Using the cytoplasmic domain of Fas in the yeast two-hybrid system, we have identified a novel interacting protein, FADD, which binds Fas and Fas-FD5, a mutant of Fas possessing enhanced killing activity, but not the functionally inactive mutants Fas-LPR and Fas-FD8. FADD contains a death domain homologous to the death domains of Fas and TNFR-1. A point mutation in FADD, analogous to the lpr mutation of Fas, abolishes its ability to bind Fas, suggesting a death domain to death domain interaction. Overexpression of FADD in MCF7 and BJAB cells induces apoptosis, which, like Fas-induced apoptosis, is blocked by CrmA, a specific inhibitor of the interleukin-1 beta-converting enzyme. These findings suggest that FADD may play an important role in the proximal signal transduction of Fas.
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            The TNF receptor superfamily of cellular and viral proteins: activation, costimulation, and death.

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              A novel family of putative signal transducers associated with the cytoplasmic domain of the 75 kDa tumor necrosis factor receptor.

              Mutational analysis identified a C-terminal region of 78 amino acids within the cytoplasmic domain of the human 75 kDa tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNF-R2) that is required for signal transduction. This region was subsequently shown to mediate the interaction of cytoplasmic factors with TNF-R2. Two of these factors were isolated and molecularly cloned using biochemical purification and the yeast two-hybrid system. TNF receptor-associated factor 1 (TRAF1) and TRAF2 are the first two members of a novel protein family containing a novel C-terminal homology region, the TRAF domain. In addition, TRAF2 contains an N-terminal RING finger motif. TRAF1 and TRAF2 can form homo- and heterotypic dimers. Our analysis indicates that TRAF1 and TRAF2 are associated with the cytoplasmic domain of TNF-R2 in a heterodimeric complex in which TRAF2 contacts the receptor directly. TRAF1 interacts with TNF-R2 indirectly through heterodimer formation with TRAF2.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cell
                Cell
                Elsevier BV
                00928674
                January 1996
                January 1996
                : 84
                : 2
                : 299-308
                Article
                10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80984-8
                8565075
                © 1996

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