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      Mammalian transposable elements and their impacts on genome evolution

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          Abstract

          Transposable elements (TEs) are genetic elements with the ability to mobilize and replicate themselves in a genome. Mammalian genomes are dominated by TEs, which can reach copy numbers in the hundreds of thousands. As a result, TEs have had significant impacts on mammalian evolution. Here we summarize the current understanding of TE content in mammal genomes and find that, with a few exceptions, most fall within a predictable range of observations. First, one third to one half of the genome is derived from TEs. Second, most mammalian genomes are dominated by LINE and SINE retrotransposons, more limited LTR retrotransposons, and minimal DNA transposon accumulation. Third, most mammal genome contains at least one family of actively accumulating retrotransposon. Finally, horizontal transfer of TEs among lineages is rare. TE exaptation events are being recognized with increasing frequency. Despite these beneficial aspects of TE content and activity, the majority of TE insertions are neutral or deleterious. To limit the deleterious effects of TE proliferation, the genome has evolved several defense mechanisms that act at the epigenetic, transcriptional, and post-transcriptional levels. The interaction between TEs and these defense mechanisms has led to an evolutionary arms race where TEs are suppressed, evolve to escape suppression, then are suppressed again as the defense mechanisms undergo compensatory change. The result is complex and constantly evolving interactions between TEs and host genomes.

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          Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome.

           James Galagan (2001)
          The human genome holds an extraordinary trove of information about human development, physiology, medicine and evolution. Here we report the results of an international collaboration to produce and make freely available a draft sequence of the human genome. We also present an initial analysis of the data, describing some of the insights that can be gleaned from the sequence.
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            Initial sequencing and comparative analysis of the mouse genome.

            The sequence of the mouse genome is a key informational tool for understanding the contents of the human genome and a key experimental tool for biomedical research. Here, we report the results of an international collaboration to produce a high-quality draft sequence of the mouse genome. We also present an initial comparative analysis of the mouse and human genomes, describing some of the insights that can be gleaned from the two sequences. We discuss topics including the analysis of the evolutionary forces shaping the size, structure and sequence of the genomes; the conservation of large-scale synteny across most of the genomes; the much lower extent of sequence orthology covering less than half of the genomes; the proportions of the genomes under selection; the number of protein-coding genes; the expansion of gene families related to reproduction and immunity; the evolution of proteins; and the identification of intraspecies polymorphism.
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              Sequence and comparative analysis of the chicken genome provide unique perspectives on vertebrate evolution.

              We present here a draft genome sequence of the red jungle fowl, Gallus gallus. Because the chicken is a modern descendant of the dinosaurs and the first non-mammalian amniote to have its genome sequenced, the draft sequence of its genome--composed of approximately one billion base pairs of sequence and an estimated 20,000-23,000 genes--provides a new perspective on vertebrate genome evolution, while also improving the annotation of mammalian genomes. For example, the evolutionary distance between chicken and human provides high specificity in detecting functional elements, both non-coding and coding. Notably, many conserved non-coding sequences are far from genes and cannot be assigned to defined functional classes. In coding regions the evolutionary dynamics of protein domains and orthologous groups illustrate processes that distinguish the lineages leading to birds and mammals. The distinctive properties of avian microchromosomes, together with the inferred patterns of conserved synteny, provide additional insights into vertebrate chromosome architecture.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                ISNI 0000 0001 2186 7496, GRID grid.264784.b, Department of Biological Sciences, , Texas Tech University, ; Lubbock, TX USA
                Author notes

                Responsible Editor: Peter A. Larsen.

                Contributors
                neal.platt@gmail.com
                Journal
                Chromosome Res
                Chromosome Res
                Chromosome Research
                Springer Netherlands (Dordrecht )
                0967-3849
                1573-6849
                1 February 2018
                1 February 2018
                2018
                : 26
                : 1
                : 25-43
                29392473 5857283 9570 10.1007/s10577-017-9570-z
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

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                © Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

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