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      Predicting the Time Spent Playing Computer and Mobile Games among Medical Undergraduate Students Using Interpersonal Relations and Social Cognitive Theory: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Chongqing, China

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          Abstract

          Background: Computer and mobile games are widely used among undergraduate students worldwide, especially in China. Our objective was to predict the time spent playing computer and mobile games based on interpersonal relations and social cognitive theory constructs (i.e., expectation, self-efficacy, and self-control). Methods: The cross-sectional survey was conducted in two medical universities using a sample of 1557 undergraduate students recruited by cluster sampling. The five-point Likert questionnaire was jointly developed by researchers from Chongqing Medical University and Jackson State University. Results: Approximately 30% and 70% of the students played computer and mobile games, respectively. The daily times spent by participants on computer games were 25.61 ± 73.60 min (weekdays) and 49.96 ± 128.60 min (weekends), and 66.07 ± 154.65 min (weekdays) and 91.82 ± 172.94 min (weekends) on mobile games. Students with high scores of interpersonal relations but low scores of self-efficacy spent prolonged time playing computer games on weekdays and weekends ( p < 0.05 for all). Students with low scores of expectation spent prolonged time playing computer games on weekdays ( p < 0.05). Students with high scores of interpersonal relations but low scores of self-efficacy and self-control spent prolonged time playing mobile games on weekdays and weekends ( p < 0.05 for all). Conclusions: The prevalence and duration of playing mobile games were higher than those of playing computer games among medical undergraduate students in Chongqing, China. This study determined the interpersonal relations, self-efficacy, self-control, and expectation of the students at the time of playing computer and mobile games. Future studies may consider studying the interaction among game-related behaviours, environments, and personality characteristics.

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          Most cited references42

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          Integrating psychological and neurobiological considerations regarding the development and maintenance of specific Internet-use disorders: An Interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution (I-PACE) model.

          Within the last two decades, many studies have addressed the clinical phenomenon of Internet-use disorders, with a particular focus on Internet-gaming disorder. Based on previous theoretical considerations and empirical findings, we suggest an Interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution (I-PACE) model of specific Internet-use disorders. The I-PACE model is a theoretical framework for the processes underlying the development and maintenance of an addictive use of certain Internet applications or sites promoting gaming, gambling, pornography viewing, shopping, or communication. The model is composed as a process model. Specific Internet-use disorders are considered to be the consequence of interactions between predisposing factors, such as neurobiological and psychological constitutions, moderators, such as coping styles and Internet-related cognitive biases, and mediators, such as affective and cognitive responses to situational triggers in combination with reduced executive functioning. Conditioning processes may strengthen these associations within an addiction process. Although the hypotheses regarding the mechanisms underlying the development and maintenance of specific Internet-use disorders, summarized in the I-PACE model, must be further tested empirically, implications for treatment interventions are suggested.
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            The Smartphone Addiction Scale: Development and Validation of a Short Version for Adolescents

            Objective This study was designed to investigate the revised and short version of the smartphone addiction scale and the proof of its validity in adolescents. In addition, it suggested cutting off the values by gender in order to determine smartphone addiction and elaborate the characteristics of smartphone usage in adolescents. Method A set of questionnaires were provided to a total of 540 selected participants from April to May of 2013. The participants consisted of 343 boys and 197 girls, and their average age was 14.5 years old. The content validity was performed on a selection of shortened items, while an internal-consistency test was conducted for the verification of its reliability. The concurrent validity was confirmed using SAS, SAPS and KS-scale. Receiver operating characteristics analysis was conducted to suggest cut-off. Results The 10 final questions were selected using content validity. The internal consistency and concurrent validity of SAS were verified with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.911. The SAS-SV was significantly correlated with the SAS, SAPS and KS-scale. The SAS-SV scores of gender (p<.001) and self-evaluation of smartphone addiction (p<.001) showed significant difference. The ROC analysis results showed an area under a curve (AUC) value of 0.963(0.888–1.000), a cut-off value of 31, sensitivity value of 0.867 and specificity value of 0.893 in boys while an AUC value of 0.947(0.887–1.000), a cut-off value of 33, sensitivity value of 0.875, and a specificity value of 0.886 in girls. Conclusions The SAS-SV showed good reliability and validity for the assessment of smartphone addiction. The smartphone addiction scale short version, which was developed and validated in this study, could be used efficiently for the evaluation of smartphone addiction in community and research areas.
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              Problematic Use of the Mobile Phone: A Literature Review and a Pathways Model

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                ijerph
                International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
                MDPI
                1661-7827
                1660-4601
                06 August 2018
                August 2018
                : 15
                : 8
                Affiliations
                [1 ]School of Public Health and Management, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China; nameclx@ 123456foxmail.com (L.C.); lry981118@ 123456foxmail.com (R.L.); zenghuan586@ 123456aliyun.com (H.Z.); xianglong1989@ 123456126.com (X.X.); 2016111041@ 123456stu.cqmu.edu.cn (R.Z.)
                [2 ]Research Center for Medicine and Social Development, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China
                [3 ]The Innovation Center for Social Risk Governance in Health, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China
                [4 ]Department of Behavioural and Environmental Health, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS 39213, USA; manoj.sharma@ 123456jsums.edu
                [5 ]Health for All, Omaha, NE 68144, USA
                [6 ]College of Health Sciences, Walden University, Minneapolis, MN 55401, USA
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: zhaoyong@ 123456cqmu.edu.cn ; Tel.: +86-23-6848-5008; Fax: +86-23-6848-5031
                [†]

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                Article
                ijerph-15-01664
                10.3390/ijerph15081664
                6121282
                30082624
                aa1acff8-5b0c-4d7e-9fa3-802f0a882736
                © 2018 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                Public health
                time,gaming disorder,interpersonal relations,self-efficacy,self-control,expectations
                Public health
                time, gaming disorder, interpersonal relations, self-efficacy, self-control, expectations

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