Four gene regions were sequenced for 30 species of jumping spiders, most from the subfamily Dendryphantinae, to investigate their molecular phylogeny and evolution. These are three regions from the mitochondria (ca. 560 bp of 16S plus adjacent tRNA, 1047 bp of cytochrome oxidase 1 (CO1), and 414 bp of NADH1 (ND1) and one region from the nuclear genome (ca. 750 bp of 28S). Parsimony and likelihood analyses of these gene regions separately and together support the monophyly of the dendryphantines as delimited previously by morphological characters. A group of elongate-bodied genera are placed as basal among the dendryphantines, and previously proposed relationships of Poultonella, Paraphidippus, and Sassacus vitis are confirmed. Comparison of overall rates of molecular evolution indicates striking differences across the gene regions, with highest divergence in ND1, CO1, 16S, and 28S in decreasing order. All four regions are characterized by both within- and among-site rate variation. Phylogenetic results from CO1 conflict conspicuously with phylogenetic results from the other genes and morphological data. Attempts to account for potential sources of this conflict (e.g., accommodating biased base composition, high homoplasy, within- and among-site rate variation, etc.) are largely unsuccessful. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.