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      A novel form of TNF/cachectin is a cell surface cytotoxic transmembrane protein: Ramifications for the complex physiology of TNF

      , , , ,

      Cell

      Elsevier BV

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          Abstract

          Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a monocyte-derived cytotoxin that has been implicated in tumor regression, septic shock, and cachexia. The mechanism by which TNF induces these different disease states is unclear. We have identified and characterized a novel, rapidly inducible cell surface cytotoxic integral transmembrane form of TNF. The existence and behavior of this novel form of TNF may explain the complex physiology of this molecule. We suggest that activated monocytes synthesize transmembrane TNF at the site of inflammation and kill their targets by either cell-to-cell contact or local release of the TNF secretory component. In contrast, septic shock and cachexia may result from either acute or chronic systemic activation of monocytes, resulting in the widespread release of TNF secretory component into the circulation of the affected individual. We further suggest that cell borne cytokines and cytotoxins may be the primary mediators of directed inflammatory responses.

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          Most cited references 21

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          Anti-cachectin/TNF monoclonal antibodies prevent septic shock during lethal bacteraemia.

          Bacterial infection of the mammalian bloodstream can lead to overwhelming sepsis, a potentially fatal syndrome of irreversible cardiovascular collapse (shock) and critical organ failure. Cachectin, also known as tumour necrosis factor, is a macrophage-derived peptide hormone released in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide, and it has been implicated as a principal mediator of endotoxic shock, although its function in bacterial sepsis is not known. Anaesthetized baboons were passively immunized against endogenous cachectin and subsequently infused with an LD100 dose of live Escherichia coli. Control animals (not immunized against cachectin) developed hypotension followed by lethal renal and pulmonary failure. Neutralizing monoclonal anti-cachectin antibody fragments (F(ab')2) administered to baboons only one hour before bacterial challenge protected against shock, but did not prevent critical organ failure. Complete protection against shock, vital organ dysfunction, persistent stress hormone release and death was conferred by administration of antibodies 2 h before bacterial infusion. These results indicate that cachectin is a mediator of fatal bacteraemic shock, and suggest that antibodies against cachectin offer a potential therapy of life-threatening infection.
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            Shock and tissue injury induced by recombinant human cachectin.

            Cachectin (tumor necrosis factor), a protein produced in large quantities by endotoxin-activated macrophages, has been implicated as an important mediator of the lethal effect of endotoxin. Recombinant human cachectin was infused into rats in an effort to determine whether cachectin, by itself, can elicit the derangements of host physiology caused by administration of endotoxin. When administered in quantities similar to those produced endogenously in response to endotoxin, cachectin causes hypotension, metabolic acidosis, hemoconcentration, and death within minutes to hours, as a result of respiratory arrest. Hyperglycemia and hyperkalemia were also observed after infusion. At necropsy, diffuse pulmonary inflammation and hemorrhage were apparent on gross and histopathologic examination, along with ischemic and hemorrhagic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract, and acute renal tubular necrosis. Thus, it appears that a single protein mediator (cachectin) is capable of inducing many of the deleterious effects of endotoxin.
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              Cachectin and tumour necrosis factor as two sides of the same biological coin.

               B Beutler,  A Cerami (2015)
              In response to invasive stimuli macrophages secrete cachectin, a multipotent protein. Prominent among its biological effects is the ability to induce wasting (cachexia) as well as a lethal state of shock. The identity of cachectin and tumour necrosis factor has led to a new view of its therapeutic potential.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cell
                Cell
                Elsevier BV
                00928674
                April 1988
                April 1988
                : 53
                : 1
                : 45-53
                Article
                10.1016/0092-8674(88)90486-2
                3349526
                © 1988

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