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      Lung-resident eosinophils represent a distinct regulatory eosinophil subset

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          Immunology of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

          Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are both obstructive airway diseases that involve chronic inflammation of the respiratory tract, but the type of inflammation is markedly different between these diseases, with different patterns of inflammatory cells and mediators being involved. As described in this Review, these inflammatory profiles are largely determined by the involvement of different immune cells, which orchestrate the recruitment and activation of inflammatory cells that drive the distinct patterns of structural changes in these diseases. However, it is now becoming clear that the distinction between these diseases becomes blurred in patients with severe asthma, in asthmatic subjects who smoke and during acute exacerbations. This has important implications for the development of new therapies.
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            The eosinophil.

            Eosinophils have been considered end-stage cells involved in host protection against parasites. However, numerous lines of evidence have now changed this perspective by showing that eosinophils are pleiotropic multifunctional leukocytes involved in initiation and propagation of diverse inflammatory responses, as well as modulators of innate and adaptive immunity. In this review, we summarize the biology of eosinophils, focusing on the growing properties of eosinophil-derived products, including the constituents of their granules as well as the mechanisms by which they release their pleiotropic mediators. We examine new views on the role of eosinophils in homeostatic function, including developmental biology and innate and adaptive immunity (as well as interaction with mast cells and T cells). The molecular steps involved in eosinophil development and trafficking are described, with special attention to the important role of the transcription factor GATA-1, the eosinophil-selective cytokine IL-5, and the eotaxin subfamily of chemokines. We also review the role of eosinophils in disease processes, including infections, asthma, and gastrointestinal disorders, and new data concerning genetically engineered eosinophil-deficient mice. Finally, strategies for targeted therapeutic intervention in eosinophil-mediated mucosal diseases are conceptualized.
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              Predominant TH2-like bronchoalveolar T-lymphocyte population in atopic asthma.

              In atopic asthma, activated T helper lymphocytes are present in bronchial-biopsy specimens and bronchoalveolar-lavage (BAL) fluid, and their production of cytokines may be important in the pathogenesis of this disorder. Different patterns of cytokine release are characteristic of certain subgroups of T helper cells, termed TH1 and TH2, the former mediating delayed-type hypersensitivity and the latter mediating IgE synthesis and eosinophilia. The pattern of cytokine production in atopic asthma is unknown. We assessed cells obtained by BAL in subjects with mild atopic asthma and in normal control subjects for the expression of messenger RNA (mRNA) for interleukin-2, 3, 4, and 5, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and interferon gamma by in situ hybridization with 32P-labeled complementary RNA. Localization of mRNA to BAL T cells was assessed by simultaneous in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence and by in situ hybridization after immunomagnetic enrichment or depletion of T cells. As compared with the control subjects, the subjects with asthma had more BAL cells per 1000 cell that were positive for mRNA for interleukin-2 (P less than 0.05), 3 (P less than 0.01), 4 (P less than 0.001), and 5 (P less than 0.001) and GM-CSF (P less than 0.001). There was no significant difference between the two groups in the number of cells expressing mRNA for interferon gamma. In the subjects with asthma, mRNA for interleukin-4 and 5 was expressed predominantly by T lymphocytes. Atopic asthma is associated with activation in the bronchi of the interleukin-3, 4, and 5 and GM-CSF gene cluster, a pattern compatible with predominant activation of the TH2-like T-cell population.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Clinical Investigation
                American Society for Clinical Investigation
                0021-9738
                1558-8238
                September 1 2016
                August 22 2016
                : 126
                : 9
                : 3279-3295
                Article
                10.1172/JCI85664
                5004964
                27548519
                e0f7de17-43b6-4faa-abef-f641613cf5a7
                © 2016
                Product
                Self URI (article page): https://www.jci.org/articles/view/85664

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