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      Emerging important roles of circRNAs in human cancer and other diseases

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          Abstract

          CircRNAs are a large class of endogenous single-stranded RNA that is different from other linear RNA, which are produced by back-splicing and fusion of either exons, introns, or both exon-intron into covalently closed loops. CircRNAs are found in almost all living organisms and have emerged as potentially important players effecting on all life activities. It was characterized by stable structure, resistant to RNA degradation, highly abundance and conservation and tissue-specific expression. Early circRNAs were ignored as a by-product of meaningless abnormally cut RNA and had little biological function. Currently, circRNAs have become a research hotspot due to its special characteristics. CircRNAs could function as miRNA sponges, interfere with splicing and bind to protein to regulate the expression of parental genes and so on. In recent years, an increasing number of studies have revealed that circRNAs are closely related to a series of physiological and pathological processes. Additionally, circRNAs play an important role in the occurrence and development of a variety of diseases, suggesting circRNAs may be as novel indicators or biomarkers for cancer and other diseases with which they are associated. In this article, we review the biogenesis, biological functions of circRNAs and recent advances in circRNAs research in human diseases. Results will provide new insights on the roles and new ideas of circRNAs for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and possible directions and approach for future circRNA applications.

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          Most cited references139

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          Global Cancer Statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN Estimates of Incidence and Mortality Worldwide for 36 Cancers in 185 Countries

          This article provides a status report on the global burden of cancer worldwide using the GLOBOCAN 2018 estimates of cancer incidence and mortality produced by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, with a focus on geographic variability across 20 world regions. There will be an estimated 18.1 million new cancer cases (17.0 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) and 9.6 million cancer deaths (9.5 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) in 2018. In both sexes combined, lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer (11.6% of the total cases) and the leading cause of cancer death (18.4% of the total cancer deaths), closely followed by female breast cancer (11.6%), prostate cancer (7.1%), and colorectal cancer (6.1%) for incidence and colorectal cancer (9.2%), stomach cancer (8.2%), and liver cancer (8.2%) for mortality. Lung cancer is the most frequent cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among males, followed by prostate and colorectal cancer (for incidence) and liver and stomach cancer (for mortality). Among females, breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death, followed by colorectal and lung cancer (for incidence), and vice versa (for mortality); cervical cancer ranks fourth for both incidence and mortality. The most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death, however, substantially vary across countries and within each country depending on the degree of economic development and associated social and life style factors. It is noteworthy that high-quality cancer registry data, the basis for planning and implementing evidence-based cancer control programs, are not available in most low- and middle-income countries. The Global Initiative for Cancer Registry Development is an international partnership that supports better estimation, as well as the collection and use of local data, to prioritize and evaluate national cancer control efforts. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 2018;0:1-31. © 2018 American Cancer Society.
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            Cancer statistics, 2019

            Each year, the American Cancer Society estimates the numbers of new cancer cases and deaths that will occur in the United States and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, and survival. Incidence data, available through 2015, were collected by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program; the National Program of Cancer Registries; and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries. Mortality data, available through 2016, were collected by the National Center for Health Statistics. In 2019, 1,762,450 new cancer cases and 606,880 cancer deaths are projected to occur in the United States. Over the past decade of data, the cancer incidence rate (2006-2015) was stable in women and declined by approximately 2% per year in men, whereas the cancer death rate (2007-2016) declined annually by 1.4% and 1.8%, respectively. The overall cancer death rate dropped continuously from 1991 to 2016 by a total of 27%, translating into approximately 2,629,200 fewer cancer deaths than would have been expected if death rates had remained at their peak. Although the racial gap in cancer mortality is slowly narrowing, socioeconomic inequalities are widening, with the most notable gaps for the most preventable cancers. For example, compared with the most affluent counties, mortality rates in the poorest counties were 2-fold higher for cervical cancer and 40% higher for male lung and liver cancers during 2012-2016. Some states are home to both the wealthiest and the poorest counties, suggesting the opportunity for more equitable dissemination of effective cancer prevention, early detection, and treatment strategies. A broader application of existing cancer control knowledge with an emphasis on disadvantaged groups would undoubtedly accelerate progress against cancer.
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              Circular RNAs are a large class of animal RNAs with regulatory potency.

              Circular RNAs (circRNAs) in animals are an enigmatic class of RNA with unknown function. To explore circRNAs systematically, we sequenced and computationally analysed human, mouse and nematode RNA. We detected thousands of well-expressed, stable circRNAs, often showing tissue/developmental-stage-specific expression. Sequence analysis indicated important regulatory functions for circRNAs. We found that a human circRNA, antisense to the cerebellar degeneration-related protein 1 transcript (CDR1as), is densely bound by microRNA (miRNA) effector complexes and harbours 63 conserved binding sites for the ancient miRNA miR-7. Further analyses indicated that CDR1as functions to bind miR-7 in neuronal tissues. Human CDR1as expression in zebrafish impaired midbrain development, similar to knocking down miR-7, suggesting that CDR1as is a miRNA antagonist with a miRNA-binding capacity ten times higher than any other known transcript. Together, our data provide evidence that circRNAs form a large class of post-transcriptional regulators. Numerous circRNAs form by head-to-tail splicing of exons, suggesting previously unrecognized regulatory potential of coding sequences.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Genes Dis
                Genes Dis
                Genes & Diseases
                Chongqing Medical University
                2352-4820
                2352-3042
                07 August 2020
                July 2021
                07 August 2020
                : 8
                : 4
                : 412-423
                Affiliations
                [1]College of Animal Science and Technology, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang, Henan Province, 471023, PR China
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author. huangyong1979111@ 123456126.com
                Article
                S2352-3042(20)30095-7
                10.1016/j.gendis.2020.07.012
                8209354
                34179306
                70337ab6-e250-4b6b-a3c2-cd208e6d2379
                © 2020 Chongqing Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                History
                : 4 May 2020
                : 8 June 2020
                : 27 July 2020
                Categories
                Review Article

                biogenesis,cancer,circrnas,diseases,function,regulation
                biogenesis, cancer, circrnas, diseases, function, regulation

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