6
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
1 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: not found

      Role of CCL2/CCR2 axis in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 and possible Treatments: All options on the Table

      review-article

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPMC
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is cause of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). In the last two years, SARS-CoV-2 has infected millions of people worldwide with different waves, resulting in the death of many individuals. The evidence disclosed that the host immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 play a pivotal role in COVID-19 pathogenesis and clinical manifestations. In addition to inducing antiviral immune responses, SARS-CoV-2 can also cause dysregulated inflammatory responses characterized by the noticeable release of proinflammatory mediators in COVID-19 patients. Among these proinflammatory mediators, chemokines are considered a subset of cytokines that participate in the chemotaxis process to recruit immune and non-immune cells to the site of inflammation and infection. Researchers have demonstrated that monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) and its receptor (CCR2) are involved in the recruitment of monocytes and infiltration of these cells into the lungs of patients suffering from COVID-19. Moreover, elevated levels of CCL2 have been reported in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) obtained from patients with severe COVID-19, initiating cytokine storm and promoting CD163 + myeloid cells infiltration in the airways and further alveolar damage. Therefore, CCL2/CCR axis plays a key role in the immunopathogenesis of COVID-19 and targeted therapy of involved molecules in this axis can be a potential therapeutic approach for these patients. This review discusses the biology of the CCL2/CCR2 axis as well as the role of this axis in COVID-19 immunopathogenesis, along with therapeutic options aimed at inhibiting CCL2/CCR2 and modulating dysregulated inflammatory responses in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection.

          Related collections

          Most cited references219

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China

          Summary Background A recent cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China, was caused by a novel betacoronavirus, the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). We report the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics and treatment and clinical outcomes of these patients. Methods All patients with suspected 2019-nCoV were admitted to a designated hospital in Wuhan. We prospectively collected and analysed data on patients with laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection by real-time RT-PCR and next-generation sequencing. Data were obtained with standardised data collection forms shared by WHO and the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium from electronic medical records. Researchers also directly communicated with patients or their families to ascertain epidemiological and symptom data. Outcomes were also compared between patients who had been admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and those who had not. Findings By Jan 2, 2020, 41 admitted hospital patients had been identified as having laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection. Most of the infected patients were men (30 [73%] of 41); less than half had underlying diseases (13 [32%]), including diabetes (eight [20%]), hypertension (six [15%]), and cardiovascular disease (six [15%]). Median age was 49·0 years (IQR 41·0–58·0). 27 (66%) of 41 patients had been exposed to Huanan seafood market. One family cluster was found. Common symptoms at onset of illness were fever (40 [98%] of 41 patients), cough (31 [76%]), and myalgia or fatigue (18 [44%]); less common symptoms were sputum production (11 [28%] of 39), headache (three [8%] of 38), haemoptysis (two [5%] of 39), and diarrhoea (one [3%] of 38). Dyspnoea developed in 22 (55%) of 40 patients (median time from illness onset to dyspnoea 8·0 days [IQR 5·0–13·0]). 26 (63%) of 41 patients had lymphopenia. All 41 patients had pneumonia with abnormal findings on chest CT. Complications included acute respiratory distress syndrome (12 [29%]), RNAaemia (six [15%]), acute cardiac injury (five [12%]) and secondary infection (four [10%]). 13 (32%) patients were admitted to an ICU and six (15%) died. Compared with non-ICU patients, ICU patients had higher plasma levels of IL2, IL7, IL10, GSCF, IP10, MCP1, MIP1A, and TNFα. Interpretation The 2019-nCoV infection caused clusters of severe respiratory illness similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and was associated with ICU admission and high mortality. Major gaps in our knowledge of the origin, epidemiology, duration of human transmission, and clinical spectrum of disease need fulfilment by future studies. Funding Ministry of Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, National Natural Science Foundation of China, and Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Commission.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China

            Abstract Background Since December 2019, when coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) emerged in Wuhan city and rapidly spread throughout China, data have been needed on the clinical characteristics of the affected patients. Methods We extracted data regarding 1099 patients with laboratory-confirmed Covid-19 from 552 hospitals in 30 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in mainland China through January 29, 2020. The primary composite end point was admission to an intensive care unit (ICU), the use of mechanical ventilation, or death. Results The median age of the patients was 47 years; 41.9% of the patients were female. The primary composite end point occurred in 67 patients (6.1%), including 5.0% who were admitted to the ICU, 2.3% who underwent invasive mechanical ventilation, and 1.4% who died. Only 1.9% of the patients had a history of direct contact with wildlife. Among nonresidents of Wuhan, 72.3% had contact with residents of Wuhan, including 31.3% who had visited the city. The most common symptoms were fever (43.8% on admission and 88.7% during hospitalization) and cough (67.8%). Diarrhea was uncommon (3.8%). The median incubation period was 4 days (interquartile range, 2 to 7). On admission, ground-glass opacity was the most common radiologic finding on chest computed tomography (CT) (56.4%). No radiographic or CT abnormality was found in 157 of 877 patients (17.9%) with nonsevere disease and in 5 of 173 patients (2.9%) with severe disease. Lymphocytopenia was present in 83.2% of the patients on admission. Conclusions During the first 2 months of the current outbreak, Covid-19 spread rapidly throughout China and caused varying degrees of illness. Patients often presented without fever, and many did not have abnormal radiologic findings. (Funded by the National Health Commission of China and others.)
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: found

              Presenting Characteristics, Comorbidities, and Outcomes Among 5700 Patients Hospitalized With COVID-19 in the New York City Area

              There is limited information describing the presenting characteristics and outcomes of US patients requiring hospitalization for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int Immunopharmacol
                Int Immunopharmacol
                International Immunopharmacology
                Elsevier B.V.
                1567-5769
                1878-1705
                14 October 2022
                December 2022
                14 October 2022
                : 113
                : 109325
                Affiliations
                [a ]Department of Infectious Disease, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
                [b ]Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
                [c ]Department of Biology, East Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
                [d ]Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author at: Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran.
                Article
                S1567-5769(22)00809-8 109325
                10.1016/j.intimp.2022.109325
                9561120
                36252475
                86d3b89a-f4c3-48ae-b20e-d0bc22ebf821
                © 2022 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

                Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.

                History
                : 28 July 2022
                : 5 October 2022
                : 5 October 2022
                Categories
                Article

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine
                ccl2,ccr2,covid-19,cxcl17,mdscs,immunotherapy
                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine
                ccl2, ccr2, covid-19, cxcl17, mdscs, immunotherapy

                Comments

                Comment on this article