Juan Carlos Acosta 1 , 2 , Ana Banito 1 , 2 , Torsten Wuestefeld 3 , Athena Georgilis 1 , 2 , Peggy Janich 4 , Jennifer P Morton 5 , Dimitris Athineos 5 , Tae-Won Kang 3 , Felix Lasitschka 6 , Mindaugas Andrulis 6 , Gloria Pascual 4 , Kelly J. Morris 1 , 2 , Sadaf Khan 1 , 2 , Hong Jin 7 , Gopuraja Dharmalingam 2 , Ambrosius P. Snijders 8 , Thomas Carroll 2 , David Capper 6 , 9 , Catrin Pritchard 7 , Gareth J. Inman 10 , Thomas Longerich 6 , Owen J. Sansom 5 , Salvador Aznar Benitah 4 , Lars Zender 3 , Jesús Gil 1 , 2 , *
16 June 2013
Oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) is crucial for tumour suppression. Senescent cells implement a complex pro-inflammatory response termed the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). The SASP reinforces senescence, activates immune surveillance and paradoxically also has pro-tumourigenic properties. Here, we present evidence that the SASP can also induce “paracrine senescence” in normal cells both in culture and in human and mouse models of OIS in vivo. Coupling quantitative proteomics with small molecule screens, we identified multiple SASP components mediating paracrine senescence, including TGFβ family ligands, VEGF, CCL2 and CCL20. Amongst them, TGFβ ligands play a major role by regulating p15 INK4b and p21 CIP1. Expression of the SASP is controlled by inflammasome-mediated IL-1 signalling. The inflammasome and IL-1 signalling are activated in senescent cells and IL-1α expression can reproduce SASP activation, resulting in senescence. Our results demonstrate that the SASP can cause paracrine senescence and impact on tumour suppression and senescence in vivo.