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      Epidemiological analysis of injury in Shandong Province, China

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          Injury is an emerging public health problem with social development and modernization in developing countries. To describe the prevalence and burden of injury and provide elaborate information for policy development, we conducted a community-based household survey in the Shandong Province of China.


          The survey was conducted in 2004. Participants were selected by a multi-stage random sampling method. Information on injuries occurring in 2003 was collected in four cities and six rural counties in Shandong Province, China.


          The estimated incidence rate of injury in Shandong Province was 67.7 per 1,000. Injury incidence was higher in rural areas (84.3 per 1,000) than in urban areas (42.9 per 1,000), and was higher among males (81.1 per 1,000) than females (54.1 per 1,000).

          The average years of potential life lost is 37.7 years for each fatal injury. All injuries together caused 6,080,407 RMB yuan of direct and indirect economic loss, with traffic injuries accounting for 44.8% of the total economic loss.


          Injury incidence was higher among males than females, and in rural areas than in urban areas. Youngsters suffered the highest incidence of injury. Injury also caused large losses in terms of both economics and life, with traffic injuries contributing the most to this loss. Strategies for prevention of injury should be developed.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Injury patterns in rural and urban Uganda.

          To describe and contrast injury patterns in rural and urban Uganda. One rural and one urban community in Uganda. Community health workers interviewed adult respondents in households selected by multistage sampling, using a standardized questionnaire. In the rural setting, 1,673 households, with 7,427 persons, were surveyed. Injuries had an annual mortality rate of 92/100,000 persons, and disabilities a prevalence proportion of 0.7%. In the urban setting 2,322 households, with 10,982 people, were surveyed. Injuries had an annual mortality rate of 217/100,000, and injury disabilities a prevalence proportion of 2.8%. The total incidence of fatal, disabling, and recovered injuries was 116/1,000/year. Leading causes of death were drowning in the rural setting, and road traffic in the city. Injuries are a substantial burden in Uganda, with much higher rates than those in most Western countries. The urban population is at a higher risk than the rural population, and the patterns of injury differ. Interventions to control injuries should be a priority in Uganda.
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            The effects of recall on estimating annual nonfatal injury rates for children and adolescents.

            This study used a recent national population survey on childhood and adolescent non-fatal injuries to investigate the effects of recall bias on estimating annual injury rates. Strategies to adjust for recall bias are recommended. The 1988 Child Health Supplement to the National Health Interview Survey collected 12-month recall information on injuries that occurred to a national sample of 17,110 children aged 0 through 17 years. Using information on timing of interviews and reported injuries, estimated annual injury rates were calculated for 12 accumulative recall periods (from 1 to 12 months). The data show significantly declining rates, from 24.4 per 100 for a 1-month recall period to 14.7 per 100 for a 12-month recall period. The largest declines were found for the 0- through 4-year-old age group and for minor injuries. Rates of injuries that caused a school loss day, a bed day, surgery, or hospitalization showed higher stability throughout recall periods. Varying recall periods have profound effects on the patterns of childhood injury epidemiology that emerge from the data. Recall periods of between 1 and 3 months are recommended for use in similar survey settings.
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              The burden of road traffic injuries in developing countries: the 1st national injury survey of Pakistan.

              To assess the burden of road traffic injuries in Pakistan-a developing country in South Asia. A nationally representative household interview survey, to measure the burden of all injuries for all ages and in both genders using a three-month recall period. The overall incidence of injury events was 41 (CI: 39.2-43.8) per 1000 per year and for road traffic injuries 15 (CI: 13.7-16.5) per 1000 per year. The relative risk for road traffic injuries was found to be higher in males, those 16-45 years old, and those in the professional category of laborers and vendors. This first national survey reflects the growing impact of injuries, especially road traffic injuries in Pakistan and portends a challenge for the national health system.

                Author and article information

                BMC Public Health
                BMC Public Health
                BioMed Central
                17 April 2008
                : 8
                : 122
                [1 ]Department of Non-Communicable Disease Prevention, Shandong Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, 72 Jingshi Road, Jinan 250014, China
                [2 ]Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, Shandong University, China
                Copyright © 2008 Ma et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Research Article

                Public health


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